Environmental Sustainable Engineering & Logistic
The objective of the report is to present the ways through which the different activities such as construction projects have an impact on the environment. The report focuses on the different ways through which the construction activities can opt for renewable sources of energy for ensuring that they are not placing disastrous impacts on the environment. The report discusses a case study about the construction of a shopping centre and presents how the shopping centre manages the key aspects of sources of energy, sustainable impacts, and the health and safety of the workers during the construction.
The construction of the Shopping Centre is a big project and therefore, it also requires a large area. The location of the shopping centre is quite important to know in terms of the environment as if the areas consist of trees and greenery, then the trees would either have to be cut or they can be removed from that location to any other location, which can be easily managed and transferred. The construction of a shopping centre would be a big project with a large investment and multiple costs, but the shopping centre might have an impact on the environment, economic and historic presentations of the area in which it is planning to be constructed.
The construction of a big place or property tends to have an impact on the surrounding areas and the environment. Few impacts are temporary, such as the wastage of water, drilling the land, removal of trees and bushes, and so on, but some impacts are quite big and they have a possible impact on the environment and sustainability for a long time. The shopping center would require a supply of water and electricity for most of the day. The water that would be supplied to the Shopping centre should not be exceeding the limits that are framed by the govt. for construction (Miao, et.al., 2017). Consistent use of electricity will also have an impact on the power generated in the area. Generation and use of electricity would require the shopping center to install generators and this can increase the production of greenhouse gases. The construction of shopping centres can lead to an increase in pollution. This can lead to an increase in the use of power and water, which can harm the nearby environment.
The shopping Centre would, later on, use lots of plastic bags, which if not handled properly can lead to polluting the land and the soil. The biggest challenge that the project would face in aspects of the environment would be the perseverance of sustainability in the environment and not increasing the pollution (Elie, et.al., 2021).
The company that is constructing the Project would have to manage the costs that would be incurred in managing the sustainability of the shopping centre and also would have to take care of the areas where the risk of pollution is higher. The estimated time for the completion of the project is 36 months and in this time, there will be changes in the economic conditions of the country. This would impact the costs of construction and raw materials which would be used for construction. In this case, the challenges that the company would incur would be to control and manage the costs in a manner that they do not affect the budget of the shopping centre (Abdmouleh et.al., 2017). The changes in the economy of the country can impact the costs as well as can lead to delay in the completion of the project in time.
Any changes in the economy can have negative as well as a positive impact on the supply of construction materials or an increase in the price of the construction materials, which can eventually impact the total costs incurred in the Project.
The shopping centre is located near Dockland Campus. This is the Campus of the University of East London, which means that it would be a great place for the students to hang out and spend their free time. This can be an issue for the residents and the community of the University, as it would deviate the concentration of the students. The shopping centre would also provide employment opportunities to young people who are willing to work part-time. The student welfare community can create difficulties for the construction of the shopping mall in the area. This can be a challenge for the company.
The different types of renewable sources of energy that can be used in this project are:
- Solar Energy: The most vital source of energy that is used for the generation of electricity is Solar Energy. The company can install solar panels on the roofs of the shopping center for using the sunlight to be converted into electricity. It is the most used method that is being adopted by various big projects to minimize the use of power for the generation of electricity. It is the most consistent source of energy, but it also depends on the areas of placing the solar panels and the weather conditions. In UK., as the weather conditions are not so stable, there are chances that the solar panels might not be sufficient for generating electricity for the entire centre.
- Wind Energy: This is also another source of renewable source of energy that can be used by the project for generating electricity only if it is unable to generate electricity through the use of solar panels (Dreidy et.al., 2017). Wing energy can be used through the use of Turbines and they can be used for generating electricity by generators. The wind turbines are quite expensive and they also require a large space to set up, and they also require the wind to be very high so that the turbines can run to generate sufficient electricity. The shopping centre can use wind energy for generators as this will not only save the costs but will also be reliable and will not harm the environment.
- Hydro Energy: Hydro Energy is also another method and way that is used for generating electricity, but in this case, the electricity is created through the use of water (Akan et.al., 2017). The hydropower is taken from the dams or large reservoirs that are used for creating a strong flow to move the turbine to generate electricity. The costs from these resources are quite less as compared to that of electricity consumed by Power. The management of the Shopping Centre can rely on all these three resources for the generation of electricity.
- Use of Bags made of Clothes: The shopping centre can use bags instead of Polythene for selling the products to the customers. The use of Polythene would be quite harmful to the environment and it would create higher pollution as well. The use of bags made of clothes is not a renewable source, but it is a measure that can be used by the Shopping Centre to not create pollution. It will also encourage sustainability and the use of products that would not spoil the environment of the surroundings.
- Use of recycled materials: The Company can use recycled materials for the construction of the building and minimize the excessive costs that can incur in the construction process. Recycled items such as wires can be very cost-effective for the company and it will also promote sustainability in the overall construction process. The management would also be able to contribute towards the measures that have been adopted by the govt. In the UK, for using more and more recycled products to minimize trash and also to be innovative.
Supply Chain Management is the process that is utilized for managing and monitoring the flow of goods and services between the business and the locations at which the products are to be delivered. Supply Chain Management is a vital process for managing the flow of goods from the time of production, till the time of final delivery. Supply Chain Management is also beneficial for organizations in controlling the costs that have been incurred during the process of production and supply to the customers.
The process of Supply Chain Management includes the suppliers of raw materials, the movement and storage of raw materials, the working of in-process inventory, and at last the finished products (Afraz et.al., 2021). The Supply Chain Management in the Shopping Centre also includes the origin of the places from which the company will source the raw materials for the construction. In this case, the supply can also be of the laborers. The supply chain management in a Construction company is a bit complex as it includes gathering different resources for the final project.
The process of Procurement is a bit different from that of Supply Chain Management, the process of Procurement includes the identification, selection, and obtaining the materials from different vendors for construction. The material for the construction of the Shopping centre is procured from the local market and the suppliers that are dealing with the construction items respectively.
The Procurement Process and resources of the Shopping Centre is mentioned as below:
- Step 1: Identification of required Items: The first step is that the required items are identified for the construction and are identified based on the different requirements.
- Step 2: Selecting the Items from Different Vendors: The second step is that after the identification, the items are selected according to the different vendors who are selling them (Afolabi et.al., 2019). The quality of the products and the position of the vendor in the market are considered before the selection of the products.
- Step: Selecting the items based on quantity and cost: The third step in the procurement process is to get a quote from the vendor and compare it with other vendors to get the items at the right price and not spend a huge amount. The company also needs to balance and manage the expenses that are incurred during the process.
- Step 3: Ordering the Items: The third step in the procurement process after the selection and comparison of the costs is to order the materials. The orders are not made from one particular vendor, but from different vendors at different rates, so that the budget is not compromised. The materials are ordered according to the quantity required and the time when they would be needed.
- Step 4: Obtaining the Materials: The last step of the procurement process is to obtain the materials to be used for the construction process.
The Supply Chain Process of the Shopping Centre is also mentioned as below:
The key aspects of the supply chain process are:
- Planning: The first step in the Supply Chain process of the Shopping Centre is that the management has to first plan the materials that they are going to gather for the construction (Nasir et.al., 2017). The company has chosen vendors who are close to the location of the construction site so that the company will not have to store the materials in any warehouse. It would reduce the storage costs of the company to large extent. The materials are supplied in a planned manner that is to the different areas where the construction will take place and with the help of prior planning, the materials would be gathered on weekly basis.
- Sourcing: The next step in the Process is the Sourcing of the products. The construction materials will be sourced from local vendors so that the materials can be available and delivered easily (Wang et.al., 2017). Also, it would aid in the proper management of budgetary costs of the company.
- Making: The next step is the construction of the Shopping Centre within the stipulated period that has been set by the management of the company.
- Delivering: When the Shopping Centre would be ready and open for services, the shopping centre will also have the facility of delivering the products purchased by the people to their homes. The last step of the process would be to deliver the products to the customers.
The construction site is a very risky area as there are higher chances of any accident or injury if proper precautions are not taken during the construction process. The construction of the Shopping centre should be done considering the safety of the workers that are working on the site respectively. The principle of Health and Safety factors that needs to be considered for the project at the production site is:
- Security of Construction Site: The key principle of health and safety at the construction site is to keep tight security of the construction site (Oswald et.al., 2018). There should be vigilant checking of the people and materials that are entering into the construction site and whether or not they are associated with the construction like the vendors and suppliers of raw materials. The lifts that are being used on the construction site should be checked so that there is no probability of any accidents.
- Safe Work Method Assessment: This is the key principle that ensures that there is a proper follow-up of safe work methods that are being used and applied in the construction site. This is important for the workers towards the construction as it is important to ensure safety precautions so that there are no major risks attached.
- Clear Language Sign Boards: The most important part of the health and safety precautions is the use of clear language signboards so that there is no confusion to the workers and there is no major accident in the project (Adeyemo and Smallwood, 2017). As the construction of the Shopping Centre is a big project, it would be required by the management to put more signboards so that there can be safety in different zones of construction areas.
- Proper first Aid: Another vital part of the health and safety precautions is the use of proper Safety Aids for the workers. This is useful in case if there is an accident, so there should be proper first aid at the earliest requirement to the company. It would ensure that if anything happens, then the first aid can be given till the time proper medical aid is provided.
The risks that are associated with health and safety factors in the project are:
- Risk of Accidents: The major risks that are associated with the health and safety factors in the project include the risks of accidents that can take place on the construction site. These can be very dangerous for the management of the company that is making the shopping centre (Agyekum-Mensah and Knight, 2017). If the construction site is not following any proper precautions then the risk of accidents increases to quite a high level.
- Risk of delay in Project:By not taking adequate precautions, there can be a chance that due to an accident, there can be a delay in the completion of the project. The risk is quite big for the company as it can lead to an increase in the overall costs of the business.
- Risk of Damage of Machines &Equipment: Another risk that is associated is the damage that can be caused to the Machines & Equipment that is used for the construction purpose.
The Passive design is a system or a structure that directly uses natural energy such as light, wind, temperature to gather or achieve results without electricity and fuel. This is mostly used for major and big units that are working on different operations and are operating on a large scale.
On the other hand, Active designing is a system or a structure that is used or produces electricity. The construction of the Shopping Centre is quite a bug and as per the requirements of the shopping centre, it would require a lot of electricity. In this case, as the company is planning to opt for resources that are natural so that it does not harm or impact the environment, the best design that can be incorporated in the construction is the Passive Design (Bhikhoo et.al., 2017). Through the application of the passive design in the construction of the Shopping Centre, it would be easier for them to incur the process in a way that the building is built with different materials, which is usually not used in the construction of shopping centres.
The Passive Design would use the thermal characteristics of the buildings so that they can moderate the external environment and also maintain the internal conditions through the use of minimum resources of materials and fuel. The passive design would be able to the shopping centre to minimize the use of electricity from the power, rather it can completely rely on the use of solar panels for the generation of electricity for the consumption in the Shopping Centre (Yu et.al., 2019). With the use of Passive Designing the natural resources would be used to the maximum and all the activities of heating, cooling, and ventilation to create comfortable conditions inside the buildings themselves. The passive design is best for this project as it is more concentrated towards the use of natural sources for incorporating and making changes in the construction of the building for the long run as well.
The use of passive design will not have any negative impact on the surroundings and environment of the shopping centre as it is focused on the use of natural sources and it will only harness the natural conditions such as the solar radiations, cool night air, and the air pressure that can be seen in the different applications of the construction property. The passive measures would be more beneficial to the shopping centre.
The techniques that would be used in the passive design are the orientation, thermal mass, insulation, and glazing work together for taking the advantage of the natural resources such as the light, water, and breeze.
The report concludes with a description of the importance of sustainability in the construction industry. The report highlights the impact of construction activities on the environment. The report also presents the Supply Chain Management Process of the Shopping Centre and also mentions the procurement process. The report presents how the shopping centre can minimize the costs by using natural resources.
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