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How vegan markets are influencing the existing food industries


In the chapter 4 of Findings and Discussion, the researcher has utilised secondary thematic research approach which has focused on the analysis of research objectives and questions using various themes. While doing so, the researcher has selected five different themes that helped to gather significant understanding on how vegan industry is rising in recent business environments of UK and in India. This has also focused towards the identification on the enhancement of business alignments and strategic frameworks on how vegan markets are influencing the existing food industries and the reason why customers are adopting Vegan products rapidly in recent times. The chapter five that is recommendations and conclusions has also focused on providing some of the concluding statements on how vegan industry is on rise. And few recommendations have also been provided to enhance the industry in future as well. At the end, the researcher has also provided the future research scopes.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction.. 5

1.1 Background. 5

1.2 Problem statement. 5

1.3 Aim and Objectives. 6

1.4 Research questions. 6

1.5 Rationale. 6

1.6 Significance. 7

1.7 Research Gap. 7

Chapter 2: Literature review… 8

2.1 Introduction. 8

2.2 Theoretical framework. 8

2.3 Strategies for Vegan Product Brand Development: 9

2.3.1 Ansoff Matrix. 9

2.3.2 Relationship Marketing. 11

2.3.3 Market Techniques. 11

2.3.4 Niche marketing. 12

2.4.5 Segmentation, Targeting & Position. 12

2.4 Contributing Factors for Vegan Products Development. 14

2.5 Cultural Implications related to Vegan Products. 15

2.6 Challenges of Consumer Acceptance for Vegan Products. 16

2.7 Recommendations of Mitigation Challenges. 17

2.8 Literature Gap. 18

Chapter 3: Research Methodology. 19

3.1 Research Philosophy. 19

3.2 Research Approach. 20

3.3 Research Design. 20

3.4 Data Collection. 20

3.5 Data Analysis. 21

3.6 Ethical Consideration. 21

3.7 Summary. 21

Chapter 4. Data Analysis. 22

4.1 Introduction. 22

4.2 PRISMA.. 22

4.3 Boolean Search. 22

4.4 Thematic Analysis. 22

4.4.1. Significance of vegan foods for human health is become much prominent 22

4.4.2. Vegan market and the increased awareness among people for healthy lifestyle. 23

4.4.3. Development of consumer behaviours for Vegan products. 23

4.4.4. Vegan food system and biodiversity. 24

4.4.5. Contrasting approaches on hoe vegan food is making itself into the contemporary megatrends. 25

4.5 Discussion. 25

4.6 Summary. 28

Chapter 5. Conclusion & Recommendation.. 29

5.1 Conclusion. 29

5.2 Recommendation: 29

5.2.1. The Vegan industry in India must collaborate with the vegetarian industry to flourish and expand. 29

5.2.2. The vegan industry must also need to incorporate a strategic integrated communication channel to provide better information to potential customers. 30

5.3 Future Research. 31

References. 33

Table of Figures:

Figure 1 Theoretical framework (Self-Prepared) 8

Figure 2 Ansoff Matrix (Corporate finance institute, 2021) 9

Figure 3 STP (Kotler and Keller 2008)) 12

Figure 4 Research Onion (Saunders et al., 2019) 19

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Background

The vegetable food sector was growing rapidly a few years ago. Numerous factors, including ethical issues, health problems, and environmental issues, all impact consumers’ demands for vegan foods (Küster-Boluda and Vidal-Capilla, 2017). Consumers are well-informed about various sorts of plant-based diets & are striving to reduce the environmental impact of meat consumption. Currently, in India, several vegan food-related organisations control a significant part of the industry. Numerous companies are adapting their food-making processes to be vegan after examining the public’s awareness of the benefits of vegan food.

In the present UK market, a large number of vegan food-related companies hold a significant percentage of the market, providing non-vegan companies with a competitive advantage. Numerous individuals in the United Kingdom are reported to be switching to plant-based diets in order to minimise their meat intake. At the moment, the majority of individuals are intensely focused on organisational sustainability (Macdiarmid, 2021). Likewise, earlier research studies have exclusively looked at people who are vegan. Only a small amount of study has been done on vegan food brand development. That’s why this research will look into how vegan food brands develop in UK & India.

1.2 Problem statement

The majority of individuals are really concerned with sustainability. However, it is clear that people are generating a slew of environmental problems by engaging in unethical & unsustainable food practises. Nevertheless, after considering various factors, it is discovered that while there are relatively few companies dedicated to the manufacture of vegan foods.

Stronger brand development must be promoted in order to attract more customers. To attract a larger client base, it is necessary to promote the health risks of eating non-vegan meals.

A study of the vegan food market in the United Kingdom & India revealed that little research has been conducted on the subject. Similarly, no study has been uncovered that clearly illustrates how the vegan food market is developing. As a result, the research issue statement is to examine the importance of combining various techniques, such as internet marketing & sustainable growth, to assist the vegan market in satisfying all potential needs for brand value development.

1.3 Aim and Objectives


The purpose of this research is to ascertain how Vegan food firms leverage marketing techniques & approaches to build their brand.


• To ascertain brand development strategies for Vegan products in the United Kingdom and India.

• To conduct a critical analysis of the factors that contributed to the rise of Vegan products in the United Kingdom and India.

• To investigate the cultural impact of Vegan products in the United Kingdom and India.

• To ascertain the factors influencing customer behaviour for vegan products in the United Kingdom and India.

1.4 Research questions

• What are the factors that led to rise in Vegan product consumption in UK & India?

• How Vegan food organisations use various marketing techniques and approaches to reach customer?

• What are factors that has influenced the customer behaviour for Vegan products in UK & India.

1.5 Rationale

There is a lack of study on vegan food enterprises that manufacture & sell meat alternatives. The majority of research focus on veganism, but not on how these firms sell their products. This study examines how vegan food and product-selling firms grow their market from the ground up to encompass the entire country. As can be observed, vegan consumers have a significant affinity for vegan food companies (Kauppalehti, 2018).

Additionally, the researcher is a vegetarian with an interest in values-driven businesses, brand development, and marketing. The presumed research deficit was also a reason in his decision to pursue this subject since he believes that by understanding the vegan food sector and the vegan phenomena, we can increase our chances of growing and having a positive impact on society, health, and the environment. As the researcher is based in the United Kingdom and is originally from India, hence, its primary focus is on businesses based in the United Kingdom and India.

1.6 Significance

According to the result of this research, the vegan food market has employed a variety of methods for the development of its brand, which have been examined in detail. Because of this research, the researcher will be able to idealise various sorts of challenges experienced mostly by the vegan food market in order to receive greater assistance. This research will utilise secondary qualitative research to ascertain the research. As a result, this research benefits the researcher by providing varied information on the various data gathering techniques. Additionally, it assists researchers by helping them improve their communication abilities, which will enable them to obtain future funding.

1.7 Research Gap

By examining the research’s background and explanation, it becomes clear that many individuals across the United Kingdom and India are highly interested in obtaining healthier vegan food rather than other sorts of food. According to past studies and literary sources, vegan food consumption is extremely high in the United Kingdom and India in comparison to other countries. People in the United Kingdom have a high lifestyle as well as a greater awareness of their physical health (Wunsch, 2020). Furthermore, there is a scarcity of research that precisely describes the process of developing a vegan food firm’s brand. As such, this research will be done to gain a better understanding of the various brand development strategies employed by vegan firms.

Chapter 2: Literature review

2.1 Introduction

According to the findings of this literature analysis, vegan food firms in the United Kingdom have undergone significant brand development. The research’s primary objective is to examine all of the tactics used to promote vegan products. As such, the next section discusses numerous ways for brands to develop vegan products. As a result, the numerous tactics for brand development of vegan products are described in the next part. Additionally, several difficulties regarding consumer acceptance of vegan foods have been highlighted.

2.2 Theoretical framework

Figure 1 Theoretical framework (Self-Prepared)

Figure 1 Theoretical framework (Self-Prepared)

2.3 Strategies for Vegan Product Brand Development:

The numerous tactics for brand development of vegan products have been extensively examined in this chapter. Researchers must examine the market growth and the customers’ demands in order to promote any product in the market. The following section discusses numerous techniques that must be used to improve the quality of vegan product promotion in the United Kingdom’s and Indian commercial sector. These brand-building concepts have included a variety of models such as marketing techniques, the Ansoff Matrix, niche marketing, and relationship marketing, among others.

2.3.1 Ansoff Matrix

Figure 2 Ansoff Matrix (Corporate finance institute, 2021)

Figure 2 Ansoff Matrix (Corporate finance institute, 2021)

As per Hanlon (2021), the Ansoff Matrix is a technique that is often used to assess the strategy and plans for increasing the market share of vegan products. Furthermore, the researcher may use this model to create a plan that will assist the leadership team in avoiding any hazards and enhancing the development of the specified organisation in a precise method (Hanlon, 2021). This model comprises four distinct strategies: product development, market penetration, and diversification, as well as market development. The following section discusses four distinct strategies for increasing the vegan products market value.

Market Penetration

In order to increase the product market share, this strategy must be used. Product pricing might be reduced by the business in order to effectively attract more customers (Wirth, 2018). Consumers will always desire higher-quality foods at a reasonable price. In order to penetrate a new market, the leadership team may easily drop the price of the aforesaid firm in order to attract consumers. Additionally, the leadership team must increase promotion & distribution activities while entering any new market. Additionally, by expanding promotion, the leadership team may more readily reach out to potential clients. Without sufficient promotion, the leadership team would struggle to penetrate any market effectively. 

Product Development

Another essential strategy that the leadership team of the company must adopt is to comprehend the present market is the Ansoff Matrix product development strategy. By comprehending the present market strategy, the business will be capable of executing a new inventive strategy to meet the market’s demands in the UK & India (Hussain et al., 2013). On the other hand, by investing in research and development, the management may quickly introduce additional Vegan products into the existing market. In order to develop the meat substitute company, the Vegan food product company must make the first move to design new products which are superior to their rivals’ products in order to effectively expand the corporate market. Also, as part of its product development strategy, the management can seek to establish a strategic alliance in order to effectively enter the distribution platform in order to operate the company’s operations in the commercial market of UK and India.

Market Development

To grow the product and increase the brand value, the management must make the first move to implement a growth strategy. However, this strategy for market development entails satisfying the demands of customers (Yin, 2016). Additionally, this strategy for market development entails the expansion of the indicated firm’s geographic range in order to achieve greater success. Additionally, extending the firm’s operations into new geographical areas boosts its brand value. Recognizing the consumer’s demands, management of the company must make the effort to spread its vegan products into overseas markets.


In order to penetrate a new market, business must incorporate diversification into their business plan, which will enable them to prevent all threats that may impede their long-term success (Hussain et al., 2013). This diversification enables the firm to boost its sales in the business market. Additionally, it would be advantageous for the leadership team to establish a collaborative relationship between both the present company and vegan products in such an efficient manner.

2.3.2 Relationship Marketing

According to Christopher (2013), to increase the value of the brand of the vegan product, the management of the must make the first move and concentrate on relationship marketing. This relationship marketing strategy benefits the firm by acquiring devoted clients instead of consumers that regularly buy vegan products. Additionally, this strategy is management dependent. Marketing costs for a vegan food firm might be reduced due to relationship marketing strategies. As a result of this, the indicated firm is able to better align its organisational structure around a customer-focused experience. It is simple for company to communicate with consumers through social media platforms, which will help them improve customer happiness (Aka, Kehinde and Ogunnaike, 2016). Moreover, the firm’s management makes an effort to provide appropriate discounts as well as bonuses to valuable customers. This has a direct effect on consumer satisfaction.

2.3.3 Market Techniques

According to Hussain et al. (2013), to boost growth in the current market of India and United Kingdom, the management must make the first move to differentiate their business strategies. The business should be capable of effectively attracting consumers through the use of diversification in its business strategy. Additionally, effectively marketing vegan products in the business market benefits the leadership team’s ability to accomplish success. Vegan products will benefit from a diverse business plan if they are to succeed in the long term.

2.3.4 Niche marketing

When it comes to developing smarter marketing techniques, niche marketing is a crucial component of the overall strategy. The Niche marketing strategy enables vegan firms to evaluate their clients’ demands. The management of firm is capable of establishing positive relationships with consumers via the use of this strategy (Darstaru, 2021). However, Toften and Hammervoll (2013) stated that by satisfying consumer demands, the management will be capable of increasing customer satisfaction. This marketing strategy is also advantageous to the business, as it helps to grow the number of loyal customers. The management is capable of targeting specific clients because of this marketing strategy (Toften and Hammervoll, 2013). Additionally, it will benefit the firm’s management to strengthen their abilities to create an effective market environment in the current competitive market.

2.4.5 Segmentation, Targeting & Position

STP is an acronym for Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning (Kotler and Keller 2008). Additionally, he argues that this method aides markets in evaluating propositions even during marketing planning process and then generating and presenting the most pertinent individualised message to engage with customers. This approach is more focused on the client than on the product.

Figure 3STP (Kotler and Keller2008))

Figure 3STP (Kotler and Keller2008))

Market Segmentation: Asih and Asih (2015) states, segmenting customers based on their interests enables businesses to function more efficiently.

Segmentation could be based on the following:

• Demographics: By age, marital status, gender, ethnic origin, education, and occupation.

• By country, region, state, or city.

• Psychographically: based on one’s personality, risk tolerance, values, or way of life.

• Behavioural: Based on client usage, loyalty, and the rewards they seek.

Wuryandani, Ismoyowati, and Nugrahini (2018), however, argued that this method does not allow businesses to adapt to the changing environment of client needs. However, it can help organisations in satisfying client needs more effectively.

Market Targeting: According to Whalley (2000), this is the stage at which a firm assesses the profitability of each segment and concludes which clientele segments add the most to the organization’s triple bottom line. While this strategy aids organisations in determining which consumers to target, as researchers have remarked, it is a highly advanced and time-consuming process that could be too expensive for small enterprises. As Toften and Hammervoll (2009) previously stated, targeting does not always resolve a problem for small enterprises; having a small share and often concentrating only on one market and ignoring others can result in improper target market selection.

Positioning: According to Whalley (2000), the purpose of this technique is to establish a preferred standpoint for a corporation, its products, & services. Consumers’ perceptions, emotions, and feelings shape the company’s reputation. This is the final step of the STP model, and it is at this point that all organisations define their product in connection to their target consumer. It is criticised by several authors, including Hassan (2021), for being ineffective for small businesses because of its maintenance costs and constantly changing environment.

2.4 Contributing Factors for Vegan Products Development

The expansion of the vegan market necessitates both visible and perceptible changes all around the world. As per Ploll, Petritz and Stern (2020), consumers of all ages, as well as members of groups who did not previously practise veganism, have expressed an interest in the business methods in recent years. Additionally, the food business has taken a leadership position in such concerns, but mostly in regard to highlighting both development and transition in a variety of fields, like health, & fashion, and many others. Beyond this, investors are eventually betting on social alternatives which will result in future developments, as Kim and Rebholz, (2021) propose. In comparison, it is evident that only such moral concerns exist in the domain of ceasing consumption of animal-based products and their transformation (Graça, Godinho and Truninger, 2019). Apparently, a plant-based diet and the usage of plant-based products that are linked with the environment, while also providing an extremely high-quality alternative in the field of generational leaps (Graça, Godinho and Truninger, 2019)

Additionally, Rödl (2020) said that a consumer knowledge firm, Kantar Worldpanel, gathered around 66 million people in 2018 who precisely consumed a total of 150 million vegan foods. In this scenario, a large supermarket chain, particularly Sainsbury’s, reported that almost 91 percent of people on a regional scale are substituting for and reducing their animal product consumption. In addition, this quantity is really large, even as people might evaluate balances in a range of groups, however, the reality is that they all have an origin and also a sequence of such variables, indicating that an individual’s role as a consumer is related to both social and ethical evaluation. These are the variables that begin to change global market trends(Alcorta et al,2021).

In comparison, veganism, according to Miguel, Coelho and Bairrada (2020), assists in such regions by implying distinct attitudes about elements including health, & food, as well as the environment. Simultaneously, this is the result of a significant movement in views away from some conventional lifestyles toward a healthy, ethical, and natural way of life. However, Tobias-Mamina and Maziriri, (2021), believes that adopting a vegan lifestyle also means refraining from using animal-based products or even products that are better tested on animals.

2.5 Cultural Implications related to Vegan Products:

Vegan products have an influence on society as well as the environment. Furthermore, according to research, 70% of people in the India are vegetarian and 65% of people in UK are Vegan (Wunsch, 2020). People who follow a vegan diet can reduce their cholesterol and blood pressure. Furthermore, by consuming this vegan food, people in the United Kingdom can avoid two types of diabetes as well as a variety of cancers (Gheihman, 2021). People in the United Kingdom may simply avoid animal exploitation by following a vegan diet. Additionally, North et al. (2021) suggested that abstaining from animal products benefits those who oppose animal cruelty. Furthermore, those who follow vegan diets have the option to consume more beneficial items, including vitamins, fibre, veggies, and minerals. On the other hand, Plimpton (2021) demonstrate that following a vegan diet has the benefit of reducing carbon footprints. Additionally, it states that eliminating animal products benefits mankind by ensuring that each & every species on our earth has the right to live free.

According to Verbeke, Sans and Van Loo (2015), customer acceptability of cultured meat is typically anticipated in such regions as dependent on a wide variety of factors, including certain technology-related expectations. Vegans and vegetarians make up small portions of the population as compared to omnivores. The number of vegan products is growing, and the trend is defining the food market’s scope. Additionally, Smith (2020) adds that vegan diets enable individuals to keep their health well. However, this vegan diet benefits individuals by enhancing their nutritional & cooking skills. Nevertheless, consuming vegan food products benefits the development of a broader viewpoint and also provides new possibilities for people’s food habits (Smith, 2020). Additionally, a vegan diet should contain whole grains, nuts, fruit, seeds, as well as veggies. The populations may simply consume more fibre, minerals, and vitamins by following a vegan diet (Olfert and Wattick, 2018). Furthermore, by eating vegan, a person may simply reduce their carbon imprint on the environment. On the other hand, some people believe that consuming solely vegetarian product is insufficient for individuals to have an efficient lifestyle.

2.6 Challenges of Consumer Acceptance for Vegan Products:

The researchers note in this literature review that, while vegan as well as plant-based products, and also meat substitutes, are more well-established, there is a niche for egg, seafood alternatives, and many other innovative products which might not resemble traditional animal food. As a result, animal food alternatives in general are not long-lasting, and a few of the foods are highly processed (Short et al., 2021). Additionally, as Anderson (2019) emphasises, there are several issues around both safety & labelling, and also information & legislation related to consumer demand. This field faces several issues, including those related to design and technology, dietetics, sensory science and nutrition, among others.

With such rapid expansion in the field of meat consultancy, it’s no surprise that it’s affecting meat production systems as well (Van Eenennaam and Werth, 2021). Numerous studies are currently being conducted to further investigate such conventional meat production techniques, and also have discovered that they consume an excessive amount of water, & energy, as well as land (He et al., 2020). Additionally, in the region of generating an abundance of meats that are often farm-grown, some animals are forced to live inside under such rigorous monitoring conditions and also to be killed, raising further ethical concerns (Zidari et al., 2020). Additionally, Pakseresht, Kaliji and Canavari (2021) asserted that customers who learned about these concerns felt confused during meals and expressed a desire to buy sustainable meat. There are those who desire to buy and consume meat without causing harm to animals or raising concerns about animal welfare by re-establishing the traditional meat-paradox.

Additionally, Sage (2019) asserts that, despite the current absence of a legislative framework defining what constitutes a vegan, producers should concentrate on ensuring that every possible step is taken to substantiate such claims. Additionally, the biggest challenges ahead are improving the product’s development and the methods for transforming it into a meat substitute. In comparison, by increasing the perceived value of the operation, and also rendering it more expense and resource-efficient, coping with these kinds of regulatory difficulties becomes possible (Bryant and Barnett, 2020).

2.7 Recommendations of Mitigation Challenges:

According to Macdiarmid and Whybrow (2019), meat has traditionally been seen as a critical nutrient source, even more so in developing nations that may also have nutritional deficiencies. Excessive meat consumption, on the other hand, has been linked to a variety of health problems. According to McKenzie (2021), approximately 1.8 million individuals die every year from ischemic heart disease, with a quarter of these deaths being related to the excessive intake of rapid meat products.

On the other hand, the combination of pharmaceutical manufacture with food production might not even be financially viable during the period of sterile cell culture, as stated by (Alcorta et al., 2021). In these instances, natural standards for food agents are really a viable technique for eliminating such risks as contamination while being cost-effective. Similarly, the risk of zoonotic disease transmission might be lowered directly by reducing human interaction with animals that are infected. Instead, by reducing habitat degradation, we may achieve the same result indirectly.

Both nutritional deficiencies and illnesses related to food might be recognised by such variables as cell selection, genetic modification, and medium formulation approaches that regulate the presence of both beneficial and harmful substances appropriately, as noted by (Van Eenennaam and Werth, 2021). Consumer reports, on the other hand, have raised concerns both about health and safety, with worries about diseases like cancer, & unnaturalness, and restrictions that are, once again, insufficient. Meanwhile, public health demands yet another round of speculation on both sides, as well as the publication of pertinent research studies that have not yet been published. Furthermore, proper food selection & combination is necessary to gain customer acceptability while avoiding nutritional deficits in people who adopt this diet (Alcorta et al., 2021)

2.8 Literature Gap

The research’s viewpoint has been chosen to be that of such firms. Beyond this, the primary problem is that little study has been conducted on the vegan industry. Additionally, they create an intriguing subject for research study since their whole existence seems to be centred on values and ethics, which is surely more impactful than any form of CSR activity that the firms choose to implement. Another argument for adopting this viewpoint for the organisation is that much of the literature on brand-related concepts is published from the very same perspective. All of the firms in the research are international and have operations in at least three different countries. Generally, the number ranges between five and seven. In such globalisation phases, firms differ in size, & age, as well as personnel.

Chapter 3: Research Methodology:

It is vital to select a paradigm for the research method in order to grasp and analyse the many methods for accomplishing the research aims and objectives. The research onion model will assist in achieving the research’s goals and objectives.

Figure 4Research Onion (Saunders et al., 2019)

Figure 4Research Onion (Saunders et al., 2019)

3.1 Research Philosophy:

One of the most significant components in conducting business research is research philosophy. As Munir and Sheraz Anjum (2018) points out, ontology enables researchers to include actual data into their work. It is entirely concerned with nature’s reality. Moreover, Numerous research philosophies exist in the field of business and management, including positivist, interpretivist, subjectivist, and objectivism. The phrase “research philosophy” refers to a set of perspectives on the nature of the reality that the investigation is attempting to uncover(Park, Konge and Artino, 2020). This research is based on a subjective ontology, which means that the researcher’s behaviours, attitudes, experiences, and interpretations impact the research.

3.2 Research Approach:

The methodology of research is an arrangement and system that incorporates the progressions out of a broad range of assumptions to extremely particular operations. This study takes a deductive method, starting with an evaluation of qualitative findings, following by a search for research gaps and, lastly, a conclusion. Moreover, as Nisbet and Yale (2018) demonstrate, this approach actually aids the researcher in developing a research strategy that incorporates more accurate data.

3.3 Research Design:

An understanding of descriptive research enables researchers to accurately explain the many aspects of their research. It assists researchers in providing a concise summary of the situation & population around the phenomenon. As Siedlecki (2020) point out, the descriptive design assists the researcher in conducting the research by offering a wide range of research methods to analyse variables. It aids in the portrayal of more accurate summaries of the research findings by providing more information.

3.4 Data Collection:

Data collection is one of the primary components that aids the researcher in successfully completing the research activity.The researcher opted to collect data from secondary data. Secondary data, as shown by Ajayi (2017), is advantageous for integrating primary data in all types of research. The majority of the research conducted in this study is qualitative. The researcher conducted this research without conducting any quantitative research. The majority of the data was collected from a variety of sources, including ProQuest & Google Scholar. Moreover, this research incorporates Prisma & Boolean searches, which aided in completing the research in a reasonable period of time.

3.5 Data Analysis:

The researchers employed thematic analysis to integrate data from previous research into the current one. Five themes have been devised in order to acquire a better understanding of how the vegan market may improve its brand image. According to Alhojailan (2012), thematic analysis is a method that aids in the analysis of exceptional data from previous research. The primary benefit of this kind of analysis is that it allows for acquaintance with the data that has been collected. The development of initial codes for the purpose of finding themes then aids in the collection of more accurate data. Following the acquisition of the themes, familiarity with the data that has been collected aids the researcher in obtaining better results.

3.6 Ethical Consideration:

The researcher’s main task is to complete this research while adhering to ethical standards. The researcher ensured the data’s confidentiality by keeping it all in a cloud-based method. Likewise, the researcher upheld the Data Protection Act of 2018 for data security, as inspired by Lyons and Coyle, (2021). Additionally, the researcher addressed the copyright issue by referencing the 2008 Copyright Act. This legislation is advantageous for resolving the copyright issue that arose throughout this research. As a result, the researcher conducted this research ethically and in accordance with the BCU ethics board.

3.7 Summary:

The researcher employed the ontological philosophy to complete the research, as shown by an evaluation of the entire methodology. Therefore, a deductive approach was employed to generate a theory from the data that had been collected. The researcher completed the research using the secondary data collection methodology. Thematic analysis will be used to complete the data analysis portion of the research.

Chapter 4. Data Analysis:

4.1 Introduction:

The data collecting and analysis phase of this research is critical since it aided in the acquisition of more accurate data for this research. Secondary qualitative data is gathered by analysing the study approach described above. As a result, theme analysis is the most effective method for analysing the study. This chapter discusses Boolean and Prisma search techniques. Additionally, this chapter analyses five topics. Similarly, the discussion point will be assessed in order to see whether it adequately addresses the questions in the research.


4.3 Boolean Search:

4.4 Thematic Analysis:

4.4.1. Rise ofvegan food industry and its significance on health-related cases in both UK and in India

Today, with the rise of vegan products and the awareness among the people regarding the inhuman killing of animals for consumption purposes remains the most important reason for the overall growth of the market. Moreover, the factors associated with the rise of health-related issues emerging from consumption of meat and animal related products are also becoming a major reason for the rise of the vegan market in India and in the United Kingdom (Oksanen and Kortetmäki, 2021). It is also significant to understand that as per the Food and Agricultural organization of the United Nations, the livestock sectors are contributing to about 18 percent of the total greenhouse emission in the global scale. Again, it is also contributing about 37 percent of the entire human-induced methane emissions. In such respect the livestock are contributing about 63.4 percent of the total Greenhouse gas emissions in India which is the highest in the globe. Such perspectives are therefore becoming a major issue of concern for the contemporary environment concerned people throughout the globe to transform into a much detailed and accurate manner. It is also focusing towards the alignment and the incorporation of veganism into the personal diet lists. Moreover, the factors associated with over 40 percent of all cancer cases are preventable and the organization advises people to consume plant-based foods to reduce the risks of developing cancer. Again, 2015 WHO reports found that bacon, hot dogs as well as other processed meat food items are also actively causing cancer (Saari et al., 2021). It has been observed that the rise of vegan food industry has rapidly able to expand its business growth and competitiveness. The increasing demands of vegan food and lifestyles has also increased the demands. It is observed that about 3.5 million people in the UK market are listed as vegan as of 2019. Such increased rates of vegan trends are becoming a positive set of business growth opportunity for the vegan industry to flourish and to gain competitiveness with the existing meat as well as vegetarian industry.

4.4.2. Cultural Impacts and the rise of Vegan products in the UK and India

Hence, a significantly higher number of students recommending people for re-evaluating their dietary habits towards the larger amount of adoption of plant-based options. These perspectives are also allowing the people to adopt the advocacy of alternative dairy products, in such frameworks are also focusing towards gravitating the ‘clean’ label as well as ethically produced food products (apps.fas.usda, 2021). Vegans also are consuming meat, eggs, honey, milk derived from animals, dairy consuming meats, honey, milks as well as other products extracted from animals. These approaches are therefore becoming an important element for the overall rise of plant-based food products in both the UK and in India. According to a report, the global plant-based food market is estimated to be valued at about US$12.1 billion in 2019 and it is also expected to rise to about US$74.2 billion by the end of 2022. Such rapid rise of plant-based products including the milks like soy milks, almond milks as well as the goat milk are rapidly making promising paths in the Indian as well as in UK market. This rise is therefore expected to rise at a CAGR of 20.7 percent and reach about US$63.9 million by 2024 (apps.fas.usda, 2021). Veganism entails refraining from using any other animal or animal-based products for food, clothing, entertainment, and other associated works amongst others. It can also be observed that the aspects of veganism remain the fastest growing issue of concern within the frameworks of social justice movements in recent times.These not only are rejecting the industries which exploit animals but also advocating the perspectives of intentionally harming the animal and do not support industries that exploit animals.

4.4.3. Brand Building Strategies of Vegan industryand consumer behaviours

The concept of veganism in contemporary times is expanding rapidly as a social phenomenon. It has in recent western developed countries demonstrated a steady growth in numbers of vegan people who are following plant-based diets. Moreover, a number of vegans and vegetarians are also focusing towards the selection of their diets towards plant-based approaches for maintaining higher degree of health benefits. Furthermore, the motivation of adopting plant-based diets in the contemporary European as well as UK based markets is because of the people’s participation in the mitigation of climate change by taking individual actions (tpci, 2021). This not only is widening the strategic framework that is aligning the perspectives for reducing the carbon footprints through the transitioning to a plant-based diet. Such major drivers of adopting plant-based diets are certainly providing a better scope for engagement of people into vegan diets by avoiding the mass animal-based products and slaughters. Moreover, the growing awareness related to the adoption of vegan lifestyles in recent times are also becoming a major factor associated with the understanding of interests in frugal lifestyles.That are also very much related to the voluntary modernisation of food culture and the lifestyles more ethically and efficiently using a sustainable mode. Such frameworks are therefore linked to the health-related issues as well as the financial constraints that also are providing a significant number of constraints on buying meat products. The concept of veganism has also been forecasted as one of the megatrends by the contemporary global press since 2018 (Sunidhi, Vij, and Katoch, 2021). This has been focused towards the understanding of the way through which increasingly mainstream global options of vegan products in recent times.

4.4.4. Issues faced by Vegan Industry in the development as a strong brand in India and in UK

The frameworks associated with the development and the enhancement of health as well as environment related frameworks which are linked with diets, biodiversity and the food system from the vegan angle. It is in such respect, very much aligned to the overall understanding on how the vegan foods are providing positive developmental opportunities to the biodiversity as the harvested resources and indirect approaches. Moreover, the frameworks of animal-based protein production which originated harm to ecological systems and biodiversity, using 83 percent of the global farmlands, which is mainly to feed production (Bazaluk et al., 2020). Moreover, there are less demands for meat, particularly for beef and pork, then there is a less demand for the feed and less pressure on biodiverse land and habits loss and fragmentation. As George Monbiot (2016) put it, “Rainforests, savannahs, wetlands, magnificent wildlife can live alongside us, but not alongside our current [omnivores] diet.” This transition to veganism or vegetarianism is certainly focusing towards the identification and the analysis of the way through which the frameworks of modern human lifestyles are being changed. The factors of human dependent biodiversity that are aligning towards the overall development and the enhancement of the business competitiveness is certainly focusing towards the development and the enhancement of vegan based biodiversity.

Moreover, the aspects of the human-dependent biodiversity that is aligned to the main concern of subtense as components of biodiversity, that is neither animal welfare nor their rights. In such respect, the incorporation of household varieties of sheep and cattle are adapted to the local climates and are also very much adaptive to that of local food systems. These approaches are also focusing towards the identification and the analysis of the way through which local biodiversity has emerged at today’s position (Loh, Seah, and Looi, 2021).

4.4.5. Vegan food megatrends and the story behind its rise

From another perspective, it can be said that animal biodiversity is strategically helping the humans for the overall identification and the analysis of the way through which human beings can flourish and can gain better developmental opportunities. In such a perspective, the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity of 1992 promotes the utilization of combining the use and conservation to provide both the fundings and a motive for the conservation. In recent times, What Lamey (2019) considers “a long-standing view” holds that “it is in the interest of an animal to exist for human purposes, for instance as a food source, because without a human purpose the animal would not exist”, such concepts are also rising to meet the changing demands of the human being towards the vegan diets (Mahajan, 2020). But the contradictory elements are also rising, from the perspectives that, if human’s strictly follow the vegan diets, then the livestock including chicken, cow, sheep would also not exist. In such respect, non-existence would be much more dangerous than that of the conditions of their existence. In such respect, despite the rise of business approaches, vegan diets are certainly a major issue of concern in recent times.It is being observed that consumers are following strict vegan diets are remaining a small group of populations.  Moreover, the animal right activists are also on rise in both UK and in India. In such respect, the inclusion of plant-based foo habits remains most popular and effective in recent years.

4.5 Discussion:

In recent times, the debate has been arising based on the understanding of the way through which the good life and healthy lifestyle concept is developed and being into existence. While doing so, the approaches of ethics of reproduction in which few are actively supporting the imperatives of avoiding bad outcomes, and few others are considering that bad life is better than no life at all. In such respect, the use of vegan diets as well as the vegan products into the mainstream is becoming a major issue of concern (Forbes, 2021). Despite having massive support as well as the challenges associated with the utilization of vegan products, the food markets of India as well as UK are significantly rising to meet the required vegan food supplies. It has also been observed that a number of sports personalities and film celebrities in both India and in the UK are adopting either veganism or vegetarian lifestyles which are providing a better scope for influencing the general masses to adopt new vegan-based diets and lifestyles. In India, the companies like Epigamic, Hershey’s soft, So Good, Kantharos, Bombay Cheese Company are some of the major companies in the Vegan industry to meet the changing demands of the customers. These are in such respect, also helping the growth of consumer awareness and ensuring higher numbers of customers are joining this new business and megatrend. It has also been observed that Vegan India Conference held in 2019, is also providing better scopes for the vegan industry to flourish and to gain competitive market scopes (economic times. Indiatimes, 2018). It is becoming a support system for the food technologists, vegan innovators, investors, exporters and the retailers, who saw over 450 delegates from 18 different countries. In this conference, PETA India provided the award of Most Vegan Friendly City in India to Hyderabad which otherwise may be known as the most meat-consuming city in Asia.

The above discussed themes are also associated with the way through which vegan products and their demands are rising particularly after the first wave of Covid-19. The pandemic has flipped the entire switch in the minds of a number of people in favor of veganism. Such frameworks are therefore becoming a major business developmental opportunity for the vegan friendly economy. This not only is demanding for the strong agriculturally based resources for mastering the supply chain of vegan packaged food items (lifegate, 2019). Moreover the agribusiness economy in this respect, will receive a higher standard of business developmental results and ensure proper alignment of the business towards ensuring appropriate set of financial profitability. Both India and UK in recent times remain the most crucial and important business market for the vegan economy to widen its business developmental scopes and overall achievement of the quality of supply chains and abide by the global standards and labelling of vegan products. In recent times, it is also being observed that the growing scepticism on the quality of bovine milk, due to the rising concerns over the animal cruelty. Moreover, the awareness against the use of animal substances in the antibiotics are also becoming a major issue of concern for the contemporary pharmaceuticals and food animal production industry. This increased awareness against the use of antibiotic residues ultimately led to the banning of shrimp exports from India to a number of global marketplaces. In the observations of Antibiotic Use in Food Animals: India Overview, it has been observed that “There are few regulations governing the use of antimicrobials for cattle, chicken, and pigs raised for domestic consumption in India, with no stringent implementation protocols, even when there are regulations. Several studies show the use of antimicrobials as growth promoters is quite widespread. Non-Therapeutic usage of antibiotics has been especially common in poultry production” (apps.fas. used, 2021)

India being one of the biggest markets for vegetarian food products accounts for over 30 percent of the country’s population, and the remaining 70 percent of the national population also consume a relatively lower number of meat products. It is also significant to understand that India is the lowest meat consuming country in the world according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, whose annual per capita meat consumption is only estimated at 4.5 kilogram (bbc, 2020). This also becomes a major issue of concern for the vegan food and lifestyle market to increase its market shares and financial profitabilities.

Figure 4.1: How India Eats

Figure 4.1: How India Eats

(Source: apps.fas. usda, 2021)

4.6 Summary:

In summary, it can be said that the growth and the enhancement of the contemporary health-based food and lifestyles are actively providing a developmental scope to the vegan industries in both the UK and in India. This not only is providing a better scope of business engagement, but also is ensuring a higher standard of business engagement approaches to meet the changing demands of the vegetarian customers. Moreover, the expected growth rate of the meat alternative market in India is also becoming a major opportunity for the plant-based business industry.

Chapter 5. Conclusion & Recommendation:

5.1 Conclusion:

In the contemporary competitive business environment, the vegan food and lifestyle market remains one of the most recent and rapidly growing markets in India as well as in the United Kingdom. These approaches are not only focusing towards the identification and enhancement of the way through which vegan industries are flourishing in the contemporary market is certainly dependent upon the factors of changing health related awareness as well as the inclusion of megatrends of veganism. This paper has been able to identify the factors of vegan adoption and its implications in the growing market of veganism. Such aspects are also focusing towards the way through which increment of brand values can be ensured and can be managed.

Moreover, the strategy for the market development also entails the satisfying elements for demand and development also ensures positive outcomes for the vegan industries to flourish in India. This chapter is focusing towards the way through which the vegan industry can gain higher standards of business enhancement framework. In conclusion it can also be said that the growth and the expansion of the vegan industry to meet its desired business objectives. Such frameworks are helping the business approaches to ensure long term business alignment and the way through which veganism can be aligned with the existing vegetarian sector of India. This research paper has therefore able to provide an understanding to which the business of vegan diets as well as lifestyles can be ensured for a much longer period of time. This recently developed megatrend not only is able to expand the growth of business alignment and the way through which business developmental scopes can be assured. For which, few recommendations and the future developmental scopes will be provided in this chapter. 

5.2 Recommendation:

5.2.1. The Vegan industry in India must collaborate with the vegetarian industry to flourish and expand

Over 30 percent of the total Indian Population are vegetarians in India. This is the reason why the vegan industry must need to engage with this huge vegetarian industry to flourish and to gain business advantages.This recommendation is measurable, because it not only will allow the vegan industry to grab this new marketplace but also to influence vegetarian customers to shift towards veganism. This is attainable because it will also provide a better opportunity to the vegan industry in India as well as in UK market. Today, veganism is strategically flourishing in the Indian and UK market due to its business environment. While doing so, the industry must need to focus towards a number of strategic market entry approaches.This recommendation based on the objectives one and objective two.

5.2.2. The vegan industry must also need to incorporate a strategic integrated communication channel to provide better information to potential customers

This recommendation will certainly help the vegan industry to enhance and to gain higher standards of business competitiveness in a much efficient and effective manner.This recommendation is also measurable, because it will allow the vegan industry widen its strategic marketing approaches more firmly and appropriately towards meeting the change requirements. This recommendation is also attainable for the vegan industry to flourish and to ensure a higher number of customers can engage in this industry. It is also very much relevant for the contemporary vegan industry to expand its shares of business growth and the enhancement of the business achievement to ensure proper sets of customer engagement is there. This recommendation is very much aligned with objective four.

5.3 Future Research:

The current research is also focusing towards the proper set of business alignment and enhancement of the vegan industry in the UK and in the Indian business environment. This not only ensures positive business developmental approaches and the enhancement of the way through which the scopes of vegan industry can be ensured. In such respect, the future scope in this research field is to develop a specific health related consciousness for the vegan industry. Moreover, the scope for future research in this paper is the integrated marketing communication approach for the industry to ensure positive business growth and the alignment of the way to expand the business scope for the vegan industry in both India and in the UK business environment. Moreover, this research has also focused towards the alignment of this vegan industry with the existing vegetarian business environment of India, which also has an extensive set of scope for business enhancement. This research paper also provided a scope of future research approach for overall business expansion strategy that the industry needs to incorporate for expanding the business developmental strategy. It is also focusing towards the alignment of business approaches for the Vegan industry.


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