Many African Christians’ religious ideas and practises are greatly influenced by the holiness of African Pentecostal organisations. At the time of the 19th century, this concept started getting generated in the responses of these groups, which frequently placed a great emphasis on personal purity and sanctification, and had a significant effect on the continent’s religious landscape. This religious landscape has been followed by the different organisations for managing the purity of their operational movements and lifestyles adhere to Christianity. Holiness movement in late 18th scenery has been initiated in the African context while the African-American lifestyle has been started to generate in African soil. Religion colonialism can be commented as a major part of this movement. However, nearly 70 churches have been established in this period under the leadership of American churches.
This essay has aimed to evaluate the Holiness impact on the African Pentecostal movements. Here a brief introduction of the study has been provided with a proper focus on making an assessment of the issues, which has been narrated and supported by scholarly articles and books. The Holiness movement, which predominantly developed within the Methodist and Wesleyan faiths, aimed to advance sanctification, personal holiness, and a closer, more intimate connection with God. In historical context, from this time, African people were getting connected towards the Western Europe. This movement set the groundwork for the emergence of Pentecostalism among African Americans and was a significant contributor to the creation of the religious landscape of African-American Christianity. Thesis statement of this essay is to determine the influence of holiness in African Pentecostal movements.
Many African Pentecostal movements place a strong emphasis on prayer and spiritual warfare. The supernatural and the ability of prayer to fight spiritual battles against evil powers are sometimes heavily emphasised in these groups. In order to manage a potential religious movement, it was required for the religious leaders to maintain the supremacy of the church in the context of socio-political life. After establishment of a church in Kansas, this authority has focused on having a win-win situation over the conflicts in American and African soil. In response to deal with the propositional aspect of belief, it is understood that the operational religious beliefs and practices in the African context were currently operated by the churches and camps in America.
Fervent and passionate prayer is encouraged in African Pentecostal churches as a way to get in touch with God and ask for divine intervention. As discussed in the prelude it is understood that there was a conflict between the American church and African religious believers. In American religious beliefs, Christians are frequently instructed to pray with faith, trusting that God may grant their requests and work miracles. African religion is based on the African bible with the inclusion of Andrew Walls and Kwame Bediako, two prominent scholars from Africa who have held their opinion regarding the Christianity and its application. As per the findings of Ojo (1997), it is understood that the Bible holds a contemporary place in Africa. As per the findings of different theological study, it is found that, African Pentecostalism emphasises sanctification and personal holiness more than other Pentecostal movements do. The Holy Spirit’s activity on believers inspires them to live lives that are apart from the influences of the world, desire moral excellence, and long for a closer connection with God.
However, in response to the clash, it has been underlying that social cognition regarding the religious perspectives can be taken into account for managing the religious conflicts. Along with that, people’s preferences are interlinked with each other. In this aspect, it is quite familiar that the responsive attitude of the focus on paranormal events, such as speaking in tongues, prophetic visions, and spiritual contacts, is a hallmark of African Pentecostalism. The holiness of the revolution has also been encountered with different opinionated religious preachers and hence, it was significant for the Church of America to take control over the African religious activities. These encounters are frequently viewed as proof of the believer’s righteousness and relationship with God.
Many African Pentecostal religions hold that spiritual conflict and the existence of evil powers are genuine and present in the earth. It is also relevant with the context of clashes, which have been taken into consideration for measuring the development and planned approach of the religious practices in Africa. Through the movement, this concept was spread as it has been followed by the American Church. As a way of obtaining personal purity, believers are instructed to participate in spiritual warfare through prayer, fasting, and the casting out of demons.
African traditional religious beliefs, cultural circumstances, and the unique doctrines and practices of Pentecostalism are only a few of the influences on the African viewpoint of holiness in African Pentecostal groups. Ojo (1997), it is also viewed in the African context, especially in Nigeria and West Africa, the religious activities among christian residents are prudent. In response to this issue, it has been understood that the American church was the authority to make any decision regarding the African religious beliefs. Through these clashes between cultural conflicts, religious opinions were established to bridge the cultural communication between Africa and America. It’s crucial to remember that the African continent is immensely varied, with numerous nations and areas having distinctive views on holiness and Pentecostalism.
The prosperity gospel and holiness have a close relationship in several African Pentecostal sects. Nigeria and West Africa are the two common areas, where this revolution has taken place prudently. In response to the religious beliefs, it has been understood that the religious activities are to be taken into operational aspects for building religious communication. Believers are told that leading a holy life would result in monetary success and wealth, which can be especially alluring in areas with economic difficulties.
African Pentecostalism frequently reflects regional customs and cultures. However, it has been found that the American and African cultures were different. From the point of view of religious scholars, cultural communication was selected by the preachers to betterment of cultural connectivity. Religious belief implies that different African contexts will have different ways of expressing holiness. For instance, holiness may be represented differently in West Africa than it is in East Africa. Therefore, this essay has mostly focused on Nigeria and West African countries.
African Pentecostalism’s holiness doctrines can have profound social and ethical ramifications. This holiness has also been depicted into the African Bible with inclusion of social justice and effective community support planning. In response to the social justice planning, gender, race and financial standards were not the burden for both the African and American people. While some churches may support social justice and community participation as aspects of leading a holy life, others may emphasise traditional views regarding clothing, gender roles, and family structures. Therefore, both the American and later African preachers had maintained this unbiased attitude while speaking about Christianity.
Many African Pentecostal congregations emphasise the value of responsibility and community in upholding holiness. In order to deal with the planned operation regarding the religious transparency, these religious operatives are further to be taken into consideration while applying the notions into both the East and West African territory. The pursuit of a holy lifestyle is encouraged, and believers are urged to assist and keep one other responsible. In the African Pentecostalism movement, after making a deep study, it can be concluded that holiness and revivalism are frequently linked. Churches may host crusades and revival gatherings to rekindle the faith of Christians and entice new recruits to a holy life. In response to making a successful analysis of the movement, it can be mentioned that the African Pentecostalism occasionally interacts with indigenous African religious practices and beliefs. Different scholars have also opined that the Teachings on holiness may touch on the necessity of renouncing and separating oneself from ancestors’ or ancient spiritual practices as part of attaining holiness.
Nigeria is one of the African centres for pentecostalism and charismatic movements as a result of their profound and transforming influence. This Pentecostal movement has also been prudent in this geographic area with the growth of proper assimilation and adjustment. In order to make a proper religious expedition in this area, it has been identified that the speculations and beliefs are to be managed as per the required preaching practices. These practices have a significant impact on religious activities, which have established a strong bond between Africa and America.
Holiness and Religious revivals
Early in the 20th century, Pentecostal missionaries from the United States and Europe had a significant impact on the development of Pentecostalism in Nigeria. Mathew Ojo’s insight stated that the Charismatic movement has played a vital role in responding to the modern approach of Christianity in Nigeria. Along with that, it has also been found that the current societal structure of Nigeria is based on the different autonomous applications with the spread of education. It started off as a rather little presence. In this study, Holiness referred to the inclusion of Christianity and the movement was initiated in Africa by the American preachers. Pentecostal movement was earlier found in the different regions in America and Europe. Therefore, for a revival objective of Christianity, the missionaries arrived in Africa. Nigeria was the prominent country which witnessed the influence of the Pentecostalism practices and leaders from this country have adopted the approaches of revolution in the Nigerian soil. It impacted the conventional Christian beliefs, which was early practised in Nigeria. As per the missionaries, this Pentecostal movement was focused to include holiness and purity into the current religious practices. Therefore, it has impacted the religious practices in Nigeria.
In the 1970s, the Charismatic movement rose to popularity in a number of Christian denominations, emphasising spiritual gifts and the experience of the Holy Spirit. This movement has been highly influenced from the Pentecostal movement and during the mid 20th century this Charismatic movement has been spreaded in the Nigerian soil with the concept of witnessing the Holy Spirit and gifts from him. It is based on the concept of “Charismata” as per the New Testament of Bible. In response to the movement, people from Nigeria have enriched their religious practices, after getting a proper pathway from the Pentecostal movement. Diversity of the movement has also affected the Nigerian christianity practices. Not only the Pentecostal churches, but also the Catholic and Protestant churches were also influenced by the Charismatic movement.
Since the 1970s, Pentecostal and charismatic Christianity have experienced rapid expansion in Nigeria. Rapid urbanisation, difficult economic times, and a need for spiritual guidance are some of the causes of this expansion. During this era, many people from Nigeria moved from Rural areas to Urban areas. Therefore, a massive change in demography has also been witnessed during this era. Due to the uprising of both the Pentecostal and Charismatic movement, most of the people in this region have been influenced with holiness to manage their religious practices. On the other hand, in respect to the economic aspect, Nigeria has faced challenges due to inflation. The missionaries from Pentecostal movement have made people understand about the blessings from the holy spirit which can change their financial situation, with gospels. It is a major reason for the movement’s popularity in Nigeria.
Maintaining holiness of the Pentecostal missionaries, they have faced major challenges like Cultural practices, Dress code, Celebration, Social Pressure and Religious tensions.
Nigeria has a diverse culture, which encompasses a vast range of customs, traditions, and worldviews. Some of these practices can be incompatible with Pentecostal doctrine and holiness requirements. This was one of the major challenges in front of the Pentecostal missionaries in Nigeria. Along with that, Pentecostals have strict requirements for modesty and attire. However, certain ethnic outfits might not adhere to these norms. It can be difficult to strike a balance between religious modesty and cultural attire since certain traditional garb may not meet Pentecostal standards for modesty. Along with these two challenges, cultural festivals, which represented the ancient tradition of Nigeria, was also a major challenge for the missionaries. Numerous cultural festivals feature music, dancing, and other activities that may be deemed unsuitable or worldly by Pentecostal standards. On the other hand, pressure from the communities was also taken into consideration. Pentecostals who reside in multicultural communities could come under societal pressure to follow traditions or practices that go counter to their religious beliefs.
The Societal impact
All around the nation, independent charismatic churches and other Pentecostal denominations have been founded. Nigeria;s people seek for religious guidance can be commented as one of the major reasons for that. As per the observation of different scholars, this religious guidance is needed for the Nigerian people as they become confused due to the uprising of three approaches of Christianity; Catholic, Protestant and Pentecostal. In this regard, the Pentecostal churches, which were affiliated to the Charismatic movement, had initiated a policy of empathy and better understanding of the demand of common Nigerian people. This approach has helped the common people of Nigeria to gain a subsequent understanding regarding their religious practices. A deeper connection to god has been preached by the missionaries, who supported the Pentecostal and Charismatic movement. Therefore, it has become prominent for the people for following and accepting the vibes of Pentecostal movement with holiness in Nigeria.
Miracles and divine healing were the prime reasons for gaining popularity of these movements in Nigeria. Along with that, contemporary music and vibrant worship are the two major approaches, which have attracted the vast youth population in Nigeria. During the late 1970s, media houses of Nigeria also gained support from the Pentecostal missionaries. It has been understood that the media houses have helped the missionaries to spread their opinion to attract a vast number of people. Social and political engagement have also been followed by the missionaries for gaining popularity in Nigeria.
The Redeemed Christian Church of God (RCCG), Winners’ Chapel (Living Faith Church), Christ Embassy, and the Synagogue, Church of All Nations (SCOAN) are a few notable Pentecostal denominations and ministries that have formed in Nigeria. RCGC is one of the oldest Pentecostal movements. Christian values and Vibrant worships were preached through this church. Pastor Enoch Adejare Adeboye of the RCCG, Bishop David Oyedepo of the Winners’ Chapel, and Pastor Chris Oyakhilome of the Christ Embassy are just a few of the influential pastors who have significantly influenced the rise of Pentecostalism and charismatic Christianity in Nigeria.
Speaking in tongues, prophecy, healing, and deliverance are all spiritual experiences that are highly valued in Nigerian Pentecostalism.
Glossolalia, or speaking in tongues, is a significant aspect of Pentecostal worship. It is seen as a tangible expression of the Holy Spirit and a symbol of enlightenment. In response to the Nigerian context, it is found that the usage of local language has included a common approach for managing the common people of Nigeria. Many Pentecostals think that speaking in tongues, frequently used as a form of prayer, are a way to communicate with God. It has also delivered proper guidelines It is seen as a fundamental component of Pentecostal prayer and worship sessions as well as a means of both individual and group expression of faith. Receiving and conveying messages from God, frequently pertaining to future events, direction, or words of encouragement, is what prophecy entails. Henceforth, it is understood that communication is a major approach for the success of Pentecostal movement. Prophetic messages are highly valued in Nigerian Pentecostalism and are viewed as a method for believers to obtain heavenly direction and guidance for their life. In this regard, people of Nigeria got attracted towards this movement. Pentecostal church services and church leaders frequently include prophetic pronouncements.
The importance of positive confession and faith is frequently emphasised in prosperity theology. During the time of perching, this concept has been widely used by the missionaries to attract the people of Nigeria towards their Pentecostal movement. Believers are exhorted to speak well of their situations and to put their trust in God’s power to make financial breakthroughs. It is previously commented in this study that the lingual approach has been used by the missionaries to spread the concept of Pentecostal movement. Financial challenge has been prudent in Nigeria and hence, those seeking answers to their financial issues find this message to be resonant.
Socio-political influences have also been taken into consideration here for making a justified approach of study, which can be further taken into consideration while managing the information operation regarding the holiness in the Pentecostal movement in Nigeria. The prosperity theology has been adopted and preached by several influential Pentecostal pastors and ministries in Nigeria. However, people of Nigeria have also witnessed financial growth and it has also been exemplified by the missionaries and socio-political leaders. They use the accounts of those who have achieved financial success as proof of the value of their teachings. Some Pentecostal congregations in Nigeria have grown and expanded as a result of prosperity theology. Different programs have also occurred in the country to make people aware about the proper guidelines for understanding the new concept of Christianity. The promise of prosperity and benefits draws large congregations, and member contributions have helped to finance the expansion of these programmes.
Criticism and discussions
In Nigeria, charismatic movements and pentecostalism have a significant impact on politics, education, and entertainment. In a wider concept, this movement with the approach of holiness has influenced the geo-religious sentiments in Nigeria. Along with that, Pentecostal and charismatic leaders frequently have a big impact on Nigerian politics. This social impact has also drawn a political infusion into the concept of ruling and changes in the society. Some pastors and ministers are influential political personalities in addition to being spiritual leaders. They have also focused on the path, which has been shown by the missionaries for preaching modifications through Pentecostal movement. They conduct political rallies, mobilise voters, and support politicians. As a vast number of political leaders have followed that path, it has become essential for them to make their plan of action under the proper approach of policies, which have helped the movement to get spread in Nigeria. Their support has the power to affect voters, and the importance of their political activity has increased throughout time.
Charismatic and Pentecostal religions frequently promote moral and ethical principles in politics. It has been expected that this approach can be helpful for the people of Nigeria to provide a justified approach for managing the social changes and approach their policies as per the requirements. In case of dealing with the situational aspect, the Nigerian government has also delivered their support to these Pentecostal and Charismatic movements. Their members are urged to participate in politics with integrity, and they routinely discuss issues of corruption, accountability, and openness.
In the context of Nigeria, it has been found that religious reformative approaches have played a positive role. Along with that, it has also been found that this approach is responsible for shaping the socio-cultural beliefs, which have been reflected in the decisions taken by the government. Political discussions and government regulations about eradicating poverty, social welfare, and healthcare have been affected by Pentecostalism’s beliefs on social justice and compassion.
In response to the movement, various religious groups have also been formulated in Nigeria which have played a significant role in the social operations and reformations. These groups frequently take part in charitable endeavours, such as managing orphanages, hospitals, and schools. Previously the missionaries have also motivated the common people of this country to take part in these social activities. While starting those gospels, missionaries have motivated the people that one can feel the touch of god while they do any sort of social activities. Therefore, these social activities have been included into the concept of Nigeria for making a vast people aware with a social bonding formulation. These social bondings are required for gaining success in response to the operational elements, which can be further taken into consideration for developing the religious approach with the infusion of social responsibilities.
Some Pentecostal leaders have achieved prominence in politics and have taken up political activism and social concerns. Additionally, they have also actively participated into the education and cultural reformative operations. While making an observation on the other parts of the world, it has been found that the Christian missionaries have formulated different educational organisations for the welfare of people and their religious expansions. In Nigeria, a large number of Pentecostal and Charismatic groups run schools, colleges, and institutions. With the holiness attributes, which have been brought by the movement, has infused a positive sign to guide the students as per their requirements to fulfil their ambition and performances. These universities frequently offer faith-based education, which includes religious principles in the course material. However, providing religious teaching to the students has also been countered by the various atheist authorities. It is one of the major reasons for the people of Nigeria to get influenced with both the Pentecostal and Charismatic movements. These educational institutions frequently place a strong emphasis on moral and ethical principles that might influence students’ behaviour and character. While providing guidance to the student regarding their behavioural application and religious faith, this education system has provided a justified connection between knowledge and modern religious approaches. Students are frequently exhorted to live according to Christian values.
Most of the Nigerian people are engaged with pasteurisation and farming, hence, it was significant for the missionaries to make people aware about the knowledge gaining process. To educate pastors and academics in Christian theology, certain Pentecostal congregations have created theological seminaries and Bible colleges. With the growth of education, it was expected that a vast number of Nigerian people would be attracted towards the Christianity, especially towards the Pentecostal reforms. These organisations have helped Nigerian scholarship that is Christian grow.
The music business has been significantly impacted by Nigerian Pentecostalism, notably through gospel music. Christian missionaries have adopted the policy of teaching of gospels through music for attracting a vast number of people towards their religious conferences. Many gospel performers in Nigeria find inspiration in their Christian religion and have found significant success both domestically and abroad. This also can be commented as a major impact of holiness in Pentecostal movement in Nigeria. Films in Nigeria can also be included into the discussion of the selection of media to make a proper preaching of their religious beliefs. Pentecostalism’s impact may also be observed in Nollywood, the Nigerian film industry. Plates and films have been utilised here for making people aware and following the guided path of Pentecostal movements. Some plays and films are influenced by religious themes and ideals, and they frequently convey messages of morality, redemption, and faith.
In Nigeria, a large number of Pentecostal churches have their own television and radio stations where they broadcast sermons, events, and religious programming. While preaching about the religion, all these stations have been used by the missionaries. Along with that, it is still being used for gathering opinions of a group of people in Nigeria. These platforms are utilised for evangelization and promoting Christian messages and have large audiences. Pentecostalism’s explosive development has created issues with theological disagreements, financial transparency, and claims of fraud and misbehaviour by some charismatic leaders. The growth of charismatic ministries and churches led by Nigerians has allowed Nigerian Pentecostalism to transcend its borders and spread around the world. Pastors and evangelists from Nigeria frequently have a worldwide audience and participate in outreach and crusades abroad.
Similarity among the referred text related to the topic along with dissimilarities as well
The goal of personal holiness is emphasised as a key component of the Christian life in African Pentecostalism, according to holiness theology. The process of becoming more like Christ via the assistance of the Holy Spirit is known as sanctification. Ngong (2023) emphasised that the prospect of “entire sanctification” or “entire consecration,” where followers of Christ might experience a greater degree of holiness via a second act of grace, is something that African Pentecostalism commonly preaches. Speaking in tongues and other charismatic manifestations may result from this event, which is frequently connected to the Holy Spirit’s baptism. On the other hand, as argued by Black (2021), some holiness theological representations within African Pentecostalism might go towards legalism. They claim that being concerned with rigid rules concerning entertainment or excessive clothing codes could culminate in a legalistic and works-based concept of salvation. This is a dissimilarity that has been found between the opinions raised in “Ngong, Africa and Africans in the bible” with what other authors have been suggesting.
As per the text “God of Rahtid”, the term “Black rage” represents the intense resentment, dissatisfaction, and emotional discomfort that may stem from the systematic racism, social injustice, and historical oppression that Black people and communities have had to endure. It has been stated by Phoenix (2019), that black rage can be transformed into good rage and help in delivering successful outcomes for mankind. On the other hand, it has been argued by Hoag (2021) that it’s critical to recognise that Black scorn is a valid attitude to existing and extending injustices. Some contend that the idea of “Black rage” contributes to the condemnation of Black people as being instinctively angry or violent. This could legitimise racial prejudices and encourage more discrimination. Black activists’ and protestors’ criticisms and demands might become suppressed or marginalised if the term “Black rage” is abused, according to some. It may be misused to brush off genuine cries for social fairness and improvements as simple outbursts of anger. These are the differences in the thoughts highlighted in the text “God of Rahtid”.
As per the text of “Pentecostalism and Charismatic Movements in Nigeria”, the shift that has had the greatest impact has to do with a type of spirituality that developed as a result of the rise of Pentecostal and Charismatic movements. Ojo (2018) has stated in the text that Pentecostal beliefs being used with the Charismatic beliefs led people to depend on holiness so that evil powers from society can be removed. This new religious flow is part of what is known as the Charismatic Renewal, a global revivalist movement within the Christian church. On the other hand Ikem et al. (2022) have claimed that taking help of the religious beliefs, some leaders were conducting unethical practices. This is the difference in opinions in critics’ thoughts and this book.
Critical analysis of the overall findings supported with existing literature sources
In African Pentecostal communities, holiness theology encourages a sense of connection and solidarity. In the face of social and economic difficulties, support networks, a feeling of belonging, and mutual help can be provided. Similar to their counterparts in many other parts of the world, The African Pentecostal groups lay a strong emphasis on the notion of sanctification. It is the method through which people can be set apart as well as created as a holy persona due to the holy spirit’s work. It is understood that spiritual gifts like prediction and healing are of great importance among Pentecostal groups in Africa. They believe that the presence of the Holy Spirit empowers individuals to live holy lives and capitalise on these abilities. The Prosperity Gospel is a contentious teaching among many Pentecostal organisations notably those based in Africa. It implies that trust in God will result in Financial security. On the other hand, Movement (2022) have argued that emphasis on financial prosperity distracts people from thinking about moral purity. From this statement, it is understood that if people think about their financial growth, it is not possible for them to be ethical in their path as making money can sometimes result in unethical practices in life. Refuting this claim, the African Pentecostal groups believe that if divine intervention is seeked, all unethical influences from life can be removed.
Holiness theology’s concentration on prayer and spiritual battle may be motivating for Christians, strengthening them in conquering difficulties and feeling equipped spiritually to face difficult circumstances. Legalism, where Christians are held accountable to strict rules and requirements, might result from particular kinds of holiness theology (Osinski, 2021). This may cause some believers to feel restricted and superior to others who don’t follow the same rules. On the other hand, Black (2021) reasoned that speaking in tongues and healing are two charismatic approaches that often receive more attention than other crucial facets of the Christian faith, such as scriptural instruction and theological complexity. To conclude, to make themselves more approachable and culturally relevant to their congregations, African Pentecostal holiness communities frequently include indigenous ethnic elements in their worship and methods.
The impact of holiness on the African Pentecostal movements is a profound one. It has been known that these movements emphasise strongly on prayers and their capability to reduce the negative impact of spiritual battles against powers of evil. It is believed that if the prayers are passionate, it could convince God to provide divine intervention. It is because religious beliefs in the Pentecostal areas have faith that evil powers and spiritual concepts exist on the earth. Therefore, in order to fight these battles, people pray and fast so that those demons can be cast out. It has also been concluded that Charismatic Christianity and Pentecostalism have been experiencing developments on Nigerian soil. There were huge challenges pertaining to the holy beliefs as the people were convinced that their financial position could be improved if they took blessings from the holy spirit. Along with this, there have been significant impacts on entertainment and education in Nigeria. Some politicians in Nigeria are financially powerful and also they are spiritual leaders which make them ideal leaders in the eyes of the people in Nigeria. The Pentecostal religions along with charismatic Christianity help in promoting ethical principles to reduce corruption, and bring openness to the political system. The Christian life has one goal and that is personal holiness. As per the theology of holiness, African Pentecostalism believes that followers of Christ can reach a greater degree of holiness if they become more like Christ. It has been further found that “black rage” has been discussed in this paper to highlight the fact that sometimes rage can be turned into good rage from which productive results could be gained. However, Black Rage can be a tool to brush off people’s genuine feelings as it refers to people being condemned which makes people instinctively angry. Therefore, spiritual intervention is needed to fight the evil in society according to Pentecostal beliefs.
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 Udok, E.K. and Odunuga, A.F., 2016. Music and Pentecostalism: the Nigerian experience. American Research Insfitute for Policy Development, 5(1), pp.52-60.
 Beckford, R., 2001, God of the rahtid: Redeeming rage. London: Darton, Longman & Todd.
 Ngong, D.T., 2017, A new history of African christian thought: From Cape to Cairo. Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.
 Essien, U.J. and Aboh, J., 2021. The Pentecostal Experience in the Lower Cross River Region: Illumination or a Quest for Freedom 1960-2015. Jurnal Ilmu Sosiologi Dialektika Kontemporer, 8(1).
 Kgatle, M.S., 2021. The Impact of Pentecostal Advertising on the Environment and the Consumer in South Africa. The International Journal of Religion and Spirituality in Society, 11(2), p.71.
 Droll, A.M., 2023. Dreams and Visions in African Contexts. In Dreams and Visions in African Pentecostal Spirituality (pp. 59-83). Brill.
 Onah, N.G. and Agbo, R.S., 2021. Church proliferation and immorality in Nigeria: Interrogating the paradox. HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies, 77(1).
 Blanes, R.L. and Zawiejska, N., 2020. The Pentecostal antirevolution: reflections from Angola. Journal of religion in Africa, 49(1), pp.34-58.
 Olofinjana, R.I.O., 2020. Reverse Mission: Towards an African British Theology. Transformation, 37(1), pp.52-65.
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