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Quantum Computing and Cloud Security

Abstract

Quantum cloud computing system has indicated the process of storage of information and the inclusion of processing devices which is based on quantum mechanics activities. The process has been beneficial to solve complex problems which require advanced practices for computing systems. Large scale organisations such as Google, IBM, Microsoft and Amazon have developed cloud quantum computing systems on the basis of the rules and principles of quantum mechanics. The quantum cloud computing system has operated with the help of quantum bits or qubits. The qubits can exist in more than one phase at a particular time. The operation of the process has been done with the help of two different phases such as superposition phase and entanglement phase. The organisations have focused on the development of the three major factors such as API Gateway, Data Storage and Compute System for the development of the quantum cloud computing system. The implementation of the PKI system has maintained security in the quantum cloud computing process and efficiency in their activities.

Table of Contents

Background Review.. 3

Background of Quantum Cloud Computing. 3

Security System of Quantum Cloud Computing. 3

Rationale and Scope of Research. 3

Literature Review.. 4

Overview of Quantum Cloud Computing. 4

Components of Quantum Cloud Computing. 5

Security Risks and Vulnerabilities in Quantum Cloud Computing. 6

Solutions for Security Risks. 7

Conclusion. 7

References. 8

Background Review

Background of Quantum Cloud Computing

The quantum computing process refers to the storage of information and the inclusion of processing devices which is based on quantum mechanics activities. The information in this process is generally stored in binary bits in the form of 0s and 1s. The quantum bit is stored in the quantum system which acts as the main memory block of the quantum computer system. The quantum cloud computing process is inclusive of two major states such as superposition and entanglement (Gong et al. 2020). The superposition process of the cloud quantum computing analyses the capabilities of the cloud quantum process. The superposition process develops a condition where the quantum system can exist in multiple states at the same time. The second phase of quantum cloud computing is entanglement which influences the state of other particles as the changes occur in the original particle. The achievement in the state can also be done with the help of the value of the qubit. The quantum cloud computing system generally includes different components such as API Gateway, Data Storage and Compute System (Zhou et al. 2018).

Security System of Quantum Cloud Computing

The cloud quantum computing system is helpful to solve complex problems which require advanced computing practices. However, there are several security challenges in the quantum cloud computing system. The attackers can breach the security level of the system of the quantum cloud computing process without any kind of permission for the access of the quantum computers (Liu et al. 2019). The security can be breached by stealing the factors of the cloud quantum computing system or using cloud computing facilities for the compromise of the legacy infrastructures. The breach in the quantum cloud security process occurs due to ineffective standards in the authentication system, weak password system and inadequate certificate management. The process is difficult to handle for the management of the organisations as the security breaches can be done without any prior permission for access (Soeparno and Perbangsa, 2021).

Rationale and Scope of Research

The research report focuses on the exploration and analysis of the components of the quantum cloud computing practices and the working process for those components. It also identifies the security challenges and vulnerabilities associated with those components. The research study is beneficial for the management of the organisations to focus on the security challenges and take necessary actions to counter them. The research study is effective for the analysis of the quantum cloud computing components and development of the standards in the process for the optimum benefit of the organisations. The scope for the research is the analysis of other components in the quantum cloud computing for more detailed understanding of the technological system.

Literature Review

Overview of Quantum Cloud Computing

According to Shi et al. (2019), Quantum cloud computing system refers to the process of storage of information and the inclusion of processing devices which is based on quantum mechanics activities. The process is beneficial to solve complex problems which require advanced practices for computing systems. Large scale organisations such as Google, IBM, Microsoft and Amazon have developed cloud quantum computing systems based on the rules and principles of quantum mechanics. The quantum cloud computing system operates with the help of quantum bits or qubits. The qubits can exist in more than one phase at a particular time. The operation of the process is done with the help of two different phases such as superposition phase and entanglement phase. The superposition phase refers to the condition where the quantum computer system can exist in two different stages at a time. The entanglement phase refers to a state where the particle influences the state of another particle due to the change in the original particle.

As per the analysis of domain of Xin et al. (2018), cloud computing is focused on the development of computer technology. It is based on the rules and principles of quantum theory. It is identified that large scale organisations such as Google, IBM, Microsoft and Amazon have developed cloud quantum computing systems. The systems combine quantum mechanics with cloud computing which can be accessed by a network without the presence of a physical quantum computer. The computers used by the current organisations use 1 or 0 for the completion of different types of operations. However, quantum cloud computing implements quantum bits or qubits. The process possesses a unique ability for the subatomic particles which provides opportunities for the particles to exist in more than one phase (Shi et al. 2019).

There are two basic phases for the quantum cloud computing process such as superposition phase and entanglement phase. The superposition phase of cloud computing refers to a particular condition where the quantum computer system can exist in two different stages at a time. The quantum computer system implements the quantum bit process for the achievement of the superposition phase. The state of the quantum bit is represented with the help of |0> = [1/0] or |1> = [1/0] (Iftikhar, Iftikhar and Shah, 2021). The second phase of quantum cloud computing is entanglement which refers to a state where the particle influences the state of another particle due to the change in the original particle. The communication of the particle is done with the help of the entanglement phase of the quantum cloud computing process. The phase can also be achieved with the help of the beel state where the value of one quantum bit can influence the value of the other quantum bit. The presence of a control quantum bit and target quantum bit can help in the development of the bell state of the quantum cloud computing process (Lai et al. 2017).

Components of Quantum Cloud Computing

The cloud based quantum computing process helps the organisations to supervise the efficiency of the quantum algorithms. The management of the organisations generally implements three major components in the quantum cloud computing process such as API Gateway, Data Storage and Compute System.

API Gateway

The API gateway refers to the tool which is used for the management of API which is present between the client and the collection at the backend services. The API gateway operates as the reverse proxy which helps to accept different types of API calls, deliver the crucial services for the fulfillment of the API processes and the development of the appropriate results (Huang et al. 2021). The main features of the API gateway process are the security, connectivity, virtualisation, optimum availability, development simplicity, scalability, elasticity and manageability. The inclusion of APIs can help in the conversion of quantum computing in cloud based network systems due to the ability for the execution of the quantum processor system and the simulation of the backend system. The APIs are also helpful for the access and management of the services and products provided by the organisations (Bertone et al. 2020).

Data Storage

The quantum cloud computing process stores the data with the help of binary bits such as 0s and 1s. The quantum computers can store the information with the help of quantum bits which can exist in multiple stages at a time. The quantum bits in the quantum cloud computing system can include an exponential number of states which is divided into two major phases named superposition and entanglement. The n–qubits possess the same value as 2^n bits (Abd El-Latif et al. 2020).

Compute System

The compute system in the quantum cloud computing process refers to the process of calculations which is dependent on the probability of the state of a particular object before the process of measurement. The computing system is performed with the help of the operations in the quantum state of a particular object which is known as the qubit. The states refer to the individual characteristics of a particular. The superpositions of the particles can be entangled in combination with other objects and the final result of the computing process can be developed with the help of complex mathematical operations (Caleffi, Cacciapuoti and Bianchi, 2018). 

Security Risks and Vulnerabilities in Quantum Cloud Computing

It is identified that there are several security challenges in the quantum cloud computing system. The attackers can breach the security level of the system of the quantum cloud computing process without any kind of permission for the access of the quantum computers. There are different types of security breaches which can happen in the different components of the quantum cloud computing process.

Vulnerabilities in API Gateway

The security activities in the API gateway system can be breached with the help of the outsider attacks and third party vulnerabilities. The major risks in the API gateway process in the quantum cloud computing system are ineffective authorisation at the object level, user authentication system, data exposure, inadequate resources, lack of limit, authorisation at the functional level, misconfiguration in the security system, asset management practices and inadequate logging and monitoring activities. The activities can damage the efficiency in the acceptance of the API class and the delivery of the desired outcomes for the process. The damage in the security can also hamper the storage of information in the cloud server network (Castelvecchi, 2017).

Vulnerabilities in Data Storage

The data storage process refers to the collection of the information regarding tehcharaterictics of the particles and data regarding the products and services of the organisation. The main vulnerabilities in this process are the inefficiency in the technological configuration and the quality of the components in the quantum bits and the cloud computing process. The lack of efficiency in the technological infrastructure and the logging and monitoring of the system can damage the storage of information. The process can further create vulnerability in the storage of information in the cloud server which can hamper the efficiency of the organisation regarding the development and designing of the products and services (Zhang et al.2020).

Vulnerabilities in Computing System

The vulnerabilities in the computing system refers to the risks and challenges related to the complex mathematical calculations related to the development of the results. The lack of efficiency in the software and the quantum computing system can damage the development of the desired results and the appropriate maintenance of the activities in the organisation (Kearney and Perez-Delgado, 2021).

Solutions for Security Risks

It is identified that the quantum computing process in the cloud services possesses different types of security risks which can hamper the efficiency and accuracy of the cloud comp;uting services. The management of the organisations in different sectors has focused on the development of solutions for the mitigation of the security attacks in the quantum cloud systems. The implementation of the Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is crucial for the development of the security practices in cloud network solutions. The process provides optimum integrity and authentication for the users operating in the system It can also help in the mutual authentication system for the delivery of security of quantum cloud computing practices (Aluvaluet al.2020).

Conclusion

Based on the overall discussion it can be stated that the organisations have focused on the development of the three major factors such as API Gateway, Data Storage and Compute System for the development of the quantum cloud computing system. The process is helpful for the supervision of the efficiency of the quantum algorithms. The inclusion of the three phases is crucial for the optimum development of the activities. There are different types of vulnerabilities in the components of quantum cloud computing systems. The management of the large scale based organisations is recommended to improve the quality and efficiency in the activities in the quantum cloud computing system for the development of the information and data storage process. The management of the organisations in different sectors can also implement the PKI system to maintain the security in the quantum cloud computing process and maintain efficiency in their activities. It can help in the inclusion of the efficiency in the API Gateway, Data Storage and Compute System activities. The future research study on this domain can research other components of quantum cloud computing and provide critical information on the overall process.

References

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