Lean Operations And Six-Sigma

Task 1: Implementation Process of Lean Six Sigma

‘The lean six sigma’ is a technique which focuses on the elimination of unnecessary resources, energy usage and reduction of the waste margin for the ultimate improvement in the performance standards of the organization. The process is crucial for the organizations as the consumers are now more focused on sustainability. It is also effective for the organizations to enhance the performance standards, improve the profit margin and maintain a long term competitive index within the industry (Cox, Gaudard & Stephens, 2016). 

Figure 1: Lean Six Sigma Management Process within 4th Industrial Revolution in Italy in 2015

(Source: Statista Research Department, 2015)

The lean six sigma technique is being constantly adopted by organizations in different industrial sectors. 

Lean Six Sigma Process in Toyota

The management of Toyota has implemented the Toyota Production System (TPS) which is an advanced version of the lean six sigma process. The organization has implemented four major techniques during the implementation of this lean six sigma process (Chiarini et al., 2018).

Figure 2: Factors for Toyota Production System

Figure 2: Factors for Toyota Production System

(Source: Self-Created)

The organization has focused on the reduction of seven types of wastes which are overproduction, waiting, transporting, inaccurate processing, excess inventory, excess motion and defects in the action. The proper handling of the operational procedures with the help of carts and engagement of employees is effective for the organization. It has provided opportunities for the existing employee base to improve their efficiency and productivity in their performance (Loyd et al., 2020). The process is beneficial for the organization to cut down the setup times to a significant extent. The designing and implementation of the ideal method of production has provided opportunities for the development of inexpensive and short setup which is effective for the production of a wide range of items in small quantities. The process is effective for the reduction of costs for setup, capital cost, unnecessary inventory, excess lead times and costs for huge defect systems (Powell & Reke, 2019).

The management of Toyota has instructed the employee base to create groups and provided proper training and responsibility for the delivery of accurate performance. The clear and adequate instructions have helped the employees to deliver tasks with proper resources and cut down extra usage of resources and generation of wastes. The organization further engaged the dealers as a crucial part of the TPS which helped in the reduction of unnecessary wastes, setup times, defects, inventories and breakdown of infrastructure and machines (Tortorella et al., 2019). 

The inclusion of the TPS has helped the management of Toyota to sustain a flexible manufacturing system. The process has helped the organization to optimise each step of the manufacturing techniques. It has helped in the enhancement of the volume of the car production process and became the leading global motor vehicle manufacture in 2020 (Dillinger et al., 2021).

Figure 3: Number of Produced Vehicles by Toyota from 2007 to 2021

Figure 3: Number of Produced Vehicles by Toyota from 2007 to 2021

(Source: Carlier, 2021)

The inclusion of the flexible manufacturing system has helped in the maintenance of optimum quality and efficiency in the production of the automobile vehicles in the market. It has helped in the development of the production process as per the plans and strategies. The reduction of wastes and unnecessary resources are crucial for the reduction of the excess costs in different production activities (Tekin et al., 2018). The TPS system has also helped in the production of different vehicles as per the consumer demands and requirements. The focus on the production of demanded and required products has helped in the reduction of unnecessary production and helped in the improvement in the profit margin and competitive index in the market (Satoglu et al., 2017). 

The flexibility in the production system of Toyota has helped in the modification of the techniques used in the production process and activities as per the market situation and change in consumer mindset and requirements. The process has helped in proper usage of the resources and infrastructure and helped in the development of the automobile vehicles accordingly (Camuffo & Gerli, 2018). Finally, it helped in the development of a positive relationship between the consumers and suppliers. The ‘just in time’ manufacturing process has been useful for quick production. It is also responsible for updated delivery for the consumers. It has ultimately helped in the constant improvement in their production process and maintenance of sustainability in the competitive standards in the market (Schumacher et al., 2020). 

Lean Six Sigma Process in Caterpillar Inc.

The management of Caterpillar Inc realised the importance for the development of a quality manufacturing technique which helped in the enhancement of the production process for effective development of construction equipment, gas turbines, diesel and natural gas engines and others. The organization has included the Caterpillar Production System (CPS) for the optimum production of those materials in the market (Caterpillar Inc Lean Production, 2020). 

Figure 4: Factors for Caterpillar Production System

Figure 4: Factors for Caterpillar Production System

(Source: Self-Created)

The management of Caterpillar Inc has always focused on the improvement of the innovation practices and facilities as per the consumer requirements and market trends. The process has helped in the reduction of unnecessary usage of resources and creation of excess wastes in the production process. The management of the consumer demand has provided opportunities for the organization in the integration of the delivery process and the synchronisation of the value chain system and the demand and supply process. The process is effective for the enhancement of the service level and profit margin throughout the entire production process (Kosven, 2020). 

The management of the organization has also focused on the proper maintenance of quality in different activities in the production stages which helped in the reduction of unnecessary usage of resources and the inclusion of optimum quality in the final produced products in construction equipment, gas turbines, diesel and natural gas engines and others (Haronian & Sacks, 2021). The proper management of quality in different activities have helped in the development of error free items and services to the consumers. The process planning system of the production technique helped the organization to specify the procedures, implementation of the resources and the financial resources required for the quality production of the items in the entire production system (Rajini et al., 2018). 

The management of Caterpillar Inc. has also focused on the development of optimum quality in the management of supply chain processes including the procurement and outsourcing techniques. The process helped in the consistent delivery of produced items such as construction equipment, gas turbines, diesel and natural gas engines and others.at the right place at the right time (Arredondo-Soto et al., 2017). The process reduced the chances for the usage of unnecessary resources and infrastructure for the organization. Finally, the enhancement of the capability of the resources within the organization helped in the inclusion of lean activities in different procedures such as supply of raw materials, production of items and delivery of the finished products to the clients (Ridley et al., 2019). 

The implementation of the CPS system has provided opportunities for the organization to transform the procedures for the operation and management of business activities. The organization sustained the economic improvement process which started in the organization in 2004. The sals and revenue growth of the organization improved significantly due to the implementation of the production techniques. It was noticed that the global sales and revenue margin of the organization reached 54.7 billion US dollars in the year 2018 (Haronian & Sacks, 2021).

Figure 5: Global Sales and Revenue Streams of Caterpillar Inc from 2004 to 2020

Figure 5: Global Sales and Revenue Streams of Caterpillar Inc from 2004 to 2020

(Source: Mazareanu, 2021)

Lean Six Sigma Process in Parker Hannifin

Parker Hannifin is an American organization which is expert in the production of motion and control technologies. The management of the organization has focused on the development of Parker Lean System (PLS) for the implementation of the lean six sigma practices.

Figure 6: Factors of Parker Lean System

Figure 6: Factors of Parker Lean System

(Source: Self-Created)

It was identified that the development of a uniform language helped in the proper understanding of the techniques among diverse cultural groups of the employee bases in the organization. The process helped in the enhancement of the production system and implementation of optimum quality in the technological system. The quality leadership practices helped in the growth of production standards and reduction of unnecessary resources and infrastructures in the organization. The development of linkage between different operations and the learning from practical applications helped in the enhancement of the quality of the technologies for different industries. The process helped in the maintenance of smooth growth of the organization in the market (Mitchell, 2015). 

It was identified from the practical scenarios of the implementation of lean six sigma practices in the production that the organizations focused on the reduction of unnecessary resources and infrastructure in manufacturing techniques and procedures. It helped in the reduction of cost margin, enhancement of the profitability and the maintenance of competitive standards for them in the market. Therefore, the local SME can also include the lean six sigma principles to enhance the profitability and maintain sustainable competitive standards in the market. 

Task 2: Current state and future state value stream maps

Current state value stream maps

Figure 7: Current state value stream process

Figure 7: Current state value stream process

(Source: Created by the researcher)

Important data like customer order, demand of customers, total working hours, time for break and process cycle have been gathered for constructing the current value stream mapping. It was found that the most suitable mapping process for leading time reduction can be value stream mapping. The requirement for quantity data in the period of January to June was collected. In addition, the cycle time for every function was measured. The current state value stream mapping was developed on the basis of the data available. The cycle time for every stage was computed and a comparison with the calculation of TAKT time (Choudhary et al., 2019). From the present VSM state, it has been found that the overall time of cycle is 125 minutes and 93 minutes is the overall value added time. From the figure above, it is clear that the time of cycle for the big end, small end turning and spot facing were huge, a total of 62 minutes. It is followed by a 30 minutes milling process. Therefore, it is required to develop the capability of the process for big end and small turning processes (Yekini et al., 2018). In addition, sport facing also has to be taken into account for meeting the demands of the customs within the time allotted. 

Future state value stream maps

Figure 8: Future state value stream process

Figure 8: Future state value stream process

(Source: Created by the researcher)

Future state value stream mapping was developed on the basis of the modifications. It is shown in the figure above. After inclusion of conveyor in between every process, the total time of cycle was measured. It was found that time decreased to 104 minutes from the previous 125 minutes. In the same way, the value added time was also decreased to 68 minutes from the previous 93 minutes. Process cycle efficiency is the process which is useful for finding out total amount of process that is value added the efficiency prior and post process cycle enhancement. The total percentage of efficiency of the process cycle was measured pre and post implementation of specific tools used for lean and the process time has been improved to 10% on account of the differential housing process through introducing conveyors for decreasing the distance of material travelling and the time of transportation. As a conveyor was introduced, the buffering inventory within the processes was totally eliminated. These developments caused a lowering of non value added time and a rise in efficiency of the process cycle by 10%. 

Task 3: Value stream map approaches for lean and six sigma techniques

Future value stream map approaches

The eight approaches of future step VSM are keeping of TAKT time in all the processes, strategy for finished goods, implementation of one piece flow, implementation of FIFO, implementation of supermarkets, process requiring production plan, leveling of the production plan and the increments for releasing the production plan. 

The first step for improving the future state is to measure the TAKT time for all of the workstations (Hallam & Contreras, 2018). It is also necessary to determine whether all the workstations have the ability to meet the requirements of the customers. When the aspects are looked at, it can be found that it is not possible for the molding or upstream workstations to deliver TAKT time. The resources that are shared can only develop a light VSM this is 50% of total time. Two potential kaizen events can be found. First one is to increase the availability of the value stream and the second one is to decrease the machine’s process time. For this organization, the later is selected and the objective is defined for the initial kaizen event for increasing the availability of conveyors to 60%. Second step involves selection of the strategy of finished items. Here, two possibilities can be found. First one is called made to order where shipping of products is done to the consumers after enough items are produced. Alternatively, they are made to stock which entail holding of completed goods even if no order is placed. Step three, four and five of future state VSM are related to the implementation of the pull system (Garza-Reyes et al., 2018). It is important to check if one piece flow can be implemented. Two steps of assembly have the ability to develop one workstation at the time of defining the kaizen event for improving the level of yield for each of the workstations. Remaining connections can be checked in case FIFO is implemented. There are two specific locations that are useful for the FIFO process before assembly and after milling. 

Implementation of 5S methodology

There are specific tools for lean manufacturing which are applied for developing or addressing important issues related to the manufacturing process. 5S lean method is considered as a technique for the workplace and it the best method for involving ownership associates in an enterprise. It is known for creating and maintaining the level of effectiveness and efficiency of the area of manufacturing. It has been found that there is no standard process for machine arrangement and it takes a considerable amount of cycle time for all HR functions. At the time of 5S activity implementation, it has been observed that there are some critical problems in the area of differential manufacturing (Buer, Strandhagen & Chan, 2018). For this reason, important suggestions have been given. Post implementation of 5S, it is clear that the efficiency of the process cycle has been improved to a large degree for different functions of differential housing. In addition, workers, working environment has been improved with effective and wise usage of the workplace. In the same way, improvement of travel for the purpose of safety has provided support in decreasing workers’ injuries and slips. Additionally, the cost of maintenance of the machines has been reduced considerably. Total number of customers has increased after maintenance of a neat and clean layout with proper implementation of 5S. 

5S is the tool that can be applied to the manufacturing company for achieving a constant improvement of culture. Implementation of 5S is useful for helping the enterprise in defining the fundamental rules for eliminating waste and keeping a clean and safe environment for work. It is an easy method to use (Sousa et al., 2018). It does not need any complicated technical analysis and can be adopted in any industry. These are offices, manufacturing plants, from small business to large enterprises and public as well as private sectors. The practical approach, simplicity and visual characteristics are useful for making it an aid for all customers and manufacturers alike. 

5S is the most useful tool for the identification of the useful projects in the organization for eliminating waste (Kamble, Gunasekaran & Dhone, 2020). This technique can be used as an innovative management system that can aid people in thinking lean and developing the process of adopting important lean principles within the enterprise. Having the knowledge required for 5S methodology is regarded as one of the most important foundations for the six sigma principle and can be applied in all kinds of enterprises. The first step of the implementation process involves knowing how well the business is functioning. It is required to identify whether people are in the enterprise and it is difficult to locate files or documents either in digital or physical format. It also entails identification of sagging or loose electrical cables, unlabeled cabinets or unmarked contents (Ahmad et al., 2018). Other things include evaluation of important spaces occupied by useless items, unused papers and knowledge of people on keeping an organized workplace and being aware of important roles and responsibilities. 

Second step involves breaking down the 5S methodology. These five steps are sorting, storing, shining, standardizing and sustaining. In the sorting process, important materials, tools, and instructions are sorted from the things that are no longer required. This stage involves removal of the things that are not necessary for any activity. In the storing stage, important tools, files, data, equipment, materials and resources are sorted for easy and effective location, and proper application. In this stage, the tools, location of storage and equipment are labeled properly (Souza & Alves, 2018). Shine stage entails setting of important cleanliness standards. It also involves removal of trash, dirt and grease. It is necessary to ensure that everything is tidy, clean and put in proper places. Cleanliness accounts for providing a sound workplace and making all the problems noticeable. Some of the problems can be loose paperwork, missing guards, loose parts or leaks in the equipment. In the standardized process, the workforce is involved in performing stages one, two and three systematically and keeping a perfect condition in the workplace. Moreover, it also includes establishment of important schedules and setting adherence expectations. In the sustain process, 5S is made element of the culture and is included into enterprise philosophy (Improta et al., 2018). Development of commitment for the organization can help in making 5S a part of the organizational values. It can help the manufacturers in developing 5S as a good habit. Integration of 5S methodology is necessary for the development of performance management system.   

Task 4: Long Term Sustainability of Lean Six Sigma Initiatives

The management of the organization has focused on the improvement in the techniques and activities in different operational procedures due to the change in the consumer behavior and market trends, especially due to the sudden shift after the outburst of COVID-19. The management has focused on the development of exact items as per the market requirements to ensure credibility in the market in this ongoing global pandemic situation (Abbas, 2020). The management of the local SME can focus on the inclusion of different activities which can help in the sustainability of the strategies adopted for lean manufacturing principles.

Figure 9: Principles of Sustainability in Lean Manufacturing

Figure 9: Principles of Sustainability in Lean Manufacturing

(Source: Self-Created)

Integration of Sustainability in Business Departments

The management of the organizations has focused on the development of different sustainable practices for the overall betterment of the society in different operating markets. The focus has now shifted towards the integration of sustainable practices among different departments of the organization. The constant outburst of COVID-19 and growing cases of Omicron has forced the consumers to select products as per their capability (Stocker et al., 2020). It was further identified that the consumers have preferred items which are resource friendly. The management of different organizations has focused on the reduction of unnecessary usage of resources and infrastructure in the production. It has also selected supply chain programs and operational procedures for the optimum benefit of the consumers in the operating markets (Ch’ng et al., 2021). 

The integration of the business departments has provided opportunities for different business organizations to improve the quality and efficiency in the overall sustainability practices. The local SME can implement the strategy for the inclusion of optimum efficiency in lean practices for the entire operation of the organization. The process can help to maintain the production with accurate products, cut down the extra resources and wastes and maintain stability in the business principles. It can help the business organizations to sustain the quality and efficiency in the lean manufacturing strategies. 

Enhancement of Competitive Nature and Revenue Streams

The management of the business organizations has focused on the development of sustainability in the enhanced competitive index in different market conditions. The focus of the industrial organizations have significantly shifted from the enhanced focus on the cost and risk reduction and improvement of efficiencies to the development of proper competitive standards and revenue growth (Camp, 2013). The management of different business organizations have implemented techniques for appropriate usage of resources and infrastructure for the operational procedures. It has provided opportunities for the reduction of unnecessary usage of resources and generation of excess inventory and wastes. The reduction of excess resources has provided opportunities for the business organizations to enhance their profit margin and create sustainable competitive standards in the market (Tseng et al., 2021).

The organization can implement advanced techniques for the proper usage of resources and infrastructure in different operation procedures such as supply chain, production, delivery, warehouse, research and development and others. The process can provide opportunities for the SME organization to maintain stability in terms of the resource usage and control the costs in those operation practices. It can be beneficial for them to maintain proper growth rate, improve the revenue streams and profit margin and sustain the competitive nature in complex market conditions. 

Implementation of Innovation, Scenario Analysis and Strategic Planning

The implementation of innovation practices, market scenario analysis and strategic planning procedures has helped different business organizations across industrial sectors to develop lean manufacturing principles and sustain the quality and efficiency in those activities. It is identified that the senior management of the organizations has focused on innovation to implement just-in-time manufacturing and ensure flexibility in different stages of the manufacturing systems (Roos, Womack & Jones, 2014). 

The R&D team of the organization has focused on the critical identification of the trends and characteristics of the market on the basis of different parameters. It has been identified that the consumer focus and purchase intention has significantly shifted during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and threat of Omicron in the future (Caballero-Morales, 2021). Therefore, the organizations have focused on the development of just in time manufacturing and maintenance of flexibility to produce items as per the market requirements and sustain their conditions in the market. The senior management has further focused on the development of advanced strategic practices for proper usage of the resources in different operational procedures (Migliavacca et al., 2021). 

The management of the SME can implement flexibility and just in time manufacturing systems as per the market requirements. The advanced innovation techniques and enhancement in the scenario analysis and strategic planning processes can help the organization to maintain stability in terms of the resource usage and sustain the principles of lean manufacturing in the future. 

Integration of Sustainability in Business Operations

The management of the business organizations has focused on the enhancement of the lean manufacturing techniques for different business operations. The organizations have focused on a collective maintenance of the sustainable procedures across a wide range of business operations such as supply chain, production, research and development, warehouse and others. The management of the organizations has focused on the collective sustainability process. It is effective for the enhancement of the efficiency of different activities associated with the operating process of the organizations (Richey et al., 2021). The integration of the business activities have helped in the proper usage of the resources and maintain proper flexibility in the production system. The process is essential for the reduction of the excess inventory, waste material, and resources usage and infrastructure system. It is effective for the maintenance of the long term sustainability of the lean practices in the production techniques of the organization (Das & Dey, 2021). 

The management of the SME can focus on the integration of different business segments for the appropriate application of the resources and infrastructure. The process can help the organization to implement the lean six sigma practices in different operating principles and ensure long term sustainability in those practices for optimum growth in the future. 

Development of Long Term Planning

It is identified that the management of the organization has focused on the production techniques which can help in the development of quality in the long term. The management of the organizations has focused on the long term identification and analysis of the consumer requirements and market characteristics rather than just focusing on the stability in the current market conditions (Awan et al., 2021). The organizations in different industrial sectors have focused on the analysis of the efficiency of the resources and implementation of the accurate resources which can provide accuracy in the maintenance of optimum quality in the long term activities. Long term planning regarding the selection of the resources and appropriate implementation of those resources is effective for the organizations to maintain stability in the lean six sigma practices (Shokri et al., 2021). 

The operational management of the local SME can focus on the long term requirements of the consumer and characteristics of the relevant market. It can provide opportunities for the organization to engage proper resources and implement them accurately for the fulfillment of the consumer demands and requirements. It is effective for the maintenance of the resources required for the proper implementation of the lean six sigma activities. The process can ultimately help in the stability of the business in the current market conditions and ensure optimum profitability in the market in future. 

Collaboration with External Stakeholders

The collaboration with external stakeholders is crucial for the proper development and sustainability of the lean manufacturing practices in the organization for a long period of time. The organizations have started to focus on the proper selection of the supply chain programme for the engagement of quality raw materials and include exact resources for the production of the final items (Acquah et al., 2021). The selection of the proper supply chain program is effective for the reduction of unnecessary usage of the resources and infrastructure and eliminates the chances for the development of a huge number of wastes from the production activities. The process is essential for the development of the efficiency in the production practices and to maintain long term viability in the business activities. The engagement of local organizations and welfare groups also provide opportunities for the organization to identify the requirements for different resources and design the operational practices accordingly (Harlin & Berglund, 2020).

The management of the SME can develop strategies for the proper engagement of the external stakeholders for the inclusion of optimum quality in the lean six sigma principles in the operational activities. It can also provide opportunities for the organization to maintain constraints and opportunities in the regulatory activities in the operating market and sustain the business growth for a long period of time. It can finally help the SME organization to strengthen the business reputation, engage new consumer base with the products and services and enhance the competitive standards in the market in future. 

Task 5: Validity of the tools required for carbon emission in lean and six sigma model

It has been found that carbon di-oxide emission has substantially increased owing to growth of industry over the last few decades. There has been an upsurge of industrial emission. IN the year 2019, total emission of CO2 recorded was 36.7 billion metric tons. In the year 2020, Covid-19 pandemic was responsible for causing overall CO2 emissions to reduce 5% and come down to 34.81 billion metric tons (Yadav et al., 2020). China was found to contribute most to fossil fuel and industrial emission in the year 2020. The country was responsible for 30.64% of emissions in the world. The big five polluters were known for contributing to 60% of the CO2 emission in the year 2020. Despite China is presently emitting the highest amount of CO2 every year, the emission is way below that of the United States for the last three countries. From the year 1750, more than 400 billion metric tons of cumulative carbon dioxide was emitted by the USA. From the time of the industrial revolution, there has been a steep rise in the global emission of CO2. Highest was found in the year 2019. From the research of Mark Maslin, A climate science expert, it has been found that each year oceans are littered with more than 300 million tones of plastic (Pande, Neuman & Cavanaugh, 2014). It has also been found that the highest amount of greenhouse gases have been emitted in the last three million years. The usage of the DMAIC approach is useful for the improvement of environmental sustainability at the organization while implementing change practices in the enterprise.

Figure 10: Global carbon di-oxide emissions from industrial activities

Figure 10: Global carbon di-oxide emissions from industrial activities

(Source: Pande, Neuman & Cavanaugh, 2014)

Figure 11: Distribution of CO2 emissions by country

Figure 11: Distribution of CO2 emissions by country

(Source: Hallam & Contreras, 2018)

Define

This specific phase in the model aims at identifying different problems encountered at the time of different organizational activities. It is found that industrial activities can produce huge amounts of greenhouse gases, especially carbon-di-oxide which can reduce the quali of the work (Yadav et al., 2020). Environmental standards are not being followed. The organization has a family focused on collecting important feedback on the product quality and certain activities connected with the enterprise for final manufacturing of items. The feedback process of customers is solely focused on the management of industrial activities and compliance of all the environmental regulations. It is also important for the enterprise to compare the baseline performance system for comprehending all the requirements which are linked to specific environmental sustainable processes like decrease in waste, prevention of the emission of greenhouse gas, having control over unnecessary usage of resources and recycling water materials that can have detrimental effects on health. The process named lean six sigma is useful for decreasing the additional resource allocation and preventing carbon-di-oxide emission in the climate (Improta et al., 2018). The application of organizational charts is useful for meeting the purpose which is useful for providing critical insights on the issues, objectives, resources and scopes for the development of green principles for specific organizational activities. 

Measure 

Subsequent to the ‘define’ phase is the measure phase. In this phase, essential data related to product and processes are identified. Focus is paid on identifying the measures of development and maintaining the effective system measurement process. In this case, carbon footprint measurement relies on the evaluation of the level of emission of carbon from different industries. The measurement relies on different aspects like the total emission of carbon from specific activities, total area of the factories, and the location. It is possible to do the measurement  based on the detected emission of carbon from specific organizational activities and the carbon emission standard developed for all those locations. The method of calculation also involves performance evaluation based on important activities compared to the system of baseline performance of the enterprise. In the measure phase, opportunities are also provided by the organization for measuring the effectiveness of specific environmental measures taken in the information flow, supply chain management, material flow method and important production control activities. Proper measurement of useful lean practices is important for decreasing the level of greenhouse gas emission. This can result in increasing awareness for lowering carbon emissions.

Analyze

‘Analyze’ is the third phase of the DMAIC method. This phase entails identification of important process parameters and analysis of the results of the overall approaches. This phase comprises two important activities like finding the important reasons and detection of the alternatives. Identification of the causes for alternatives can consist of effective knowledge demonstration linked to the processes which are known for managing the carbon emission and waste production. The evaluation process involves development of important ideas which are responsible for creating negative influence on unwanted extraction of resources (Yekini et al., 2018). It also created specific practices driven by data for finding out the most important sources of carbon emission. Proper investigation of potential alternative methods accounts for giving scopes for the enterprises to find out alternative choices for improving environmental sustainability which is known for managing industrial functions. This method can also aid the improvement of the practices of lean and six-sigma which aid the industries to curtail dumping of waste and decrease the level of carbon emission from different industrial activities. The evaluation aids the industries in measuring the level of efficiency and accuracy of the alternative options which can be materialized for making environment friendly products and services. It is possible for the organizational management to evaluate the level of efficiency of specific green practices (Buer, Strandhagen & Chan, 2018). This can be used for the improvement of the process of environmental practices. This phase is also known for providing scopes for applying green principles correctly and promoting environmental sustainability. 

Improve

This phase involves finding out important scopes for improving and keeping important resources for meeting the goals of environmental sustainability. Some of the important actions that need to be taken in this phase are allocation of financial resources, identification of the requirements for proper implementation of useful risk mitigation strategies. It is clear that all the consumers have increased their focus on the sustainability porches for specific business functions. 

The method has made the organizational management to develop their facilities and specific standards for maintaining environmental sustainability. All the problems related to the supply chain have been properly identified by the enterprise (Kamble, Gunasekaran & Dhone, 2020). Additionally, the process of material and information flow has been managed properly. The process performance is known for giving important scopes for improving organizational management for comparing the advantages and benefits of the new system with the one used before. This is useful for evaluating the development of important lean practices and activities related to environmental sustainability every year. Allocation of financial resources is important for the development of the system and application of important resources for decreasing the amount of wastes. It can also decrease the level of carbon emission in specific organizational practices. The demands are responsible for providing important scopes for the enterprise to create a developed system for industrial functions. 

Control

Final phase of the DMAIC process is known as control. It aims at implementing all the solutions selected and making effective use of organizational practices for years. There are three important tasks which need to be done for managing this phase. They are process measurement, development process and application of useful resources on a long term basis. This helps in effectively managing the resources. The measurement process relies on effective understanding of the development of important activities. The development is compared with the previous activities. It is measured based on the carbon emission and yearly reduction of waste (Rother & Shook, 2003). The management has aimed at the improvement of future value steam method for using the lean six sigma practices properly and making sure green principles are adopted effectively in the industrial activities. The method is known for providing scopes for using the resources properly and developing the infrastructure for improving environmental sustainability. It has been found that the company needs to redesign the principles of supply chain, modify the communication standards and make advancements in terms of efficiency and quality of the material and information control processes (Choudhary et al., 2019). The organizational management has made a decision to involve more on the aforementioned activities and apply useful resources for applying the principles of lean six sigma properly. It is suitable for applying green principles for specific organizational activities. 

From the analysis, it is evident that the lean six sigma tools are effective and important for lowering the level of unnecessary usage of resources. In addition, it is also useful for reducing the level of carbon emission which in turn supports the green principles. 

References

Choudhary, S., Nayak, R., Dora, M., Mishra, N., & Ghadge, A. (2019). An integrated lean and green approach for improving sustainability performance: a case study of a packaging manufacturing SME in the UK. Production planning & control30(5-6), 353-368. Retrieved on 11th Oct, 2021 from: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/09537287.2018.1501811

Yekini, S. E., Okokpujie, I. P., Afolalu, S. A., Ajayi, O. O., & Azeta, J. (2018). Investigation of production output for improvement. International Journal of Mechanical and Production Engineering Research and Development8(1), 915-922. Retrieved on 11th Oct, 2021 from: http://eprints.covenantuniversity.edu.ng/11359/1/JOURNAL%20%20PUBLISHED%20%202-%20ENESI%20SALAWU%20AND%20OTHERS.pdf

Hallam, C. R., & Contreras, C. (2018). Lean healthcare: scale, scope and sustainability. International journal of health care quality assurance. Retrieved on 11th Oct, 2021 from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Cory-Hallam/publication/326750472_Lean_healthcare_scale_scope_and_sustainability/links/5cfe65a892851c874c5cc091/Lean-healthcare-scale-scope-and-sustainability.pdf

Garza-Reyes, J. A., Kumar, V., Chaikittisilp, S., & Tan, K. H. (2018). The effect of lean methods and tools on the environmental performance of manufacturing organisations. International Journal of Production Economics200, 170-180. Retrieved on 11th Oct, 2021 from: https://derby.openrepository.com/bitstream/handle/10545/622567/Garza_Rayes_2018_International_Journal_of_Production_Economics_accepted_manuscript.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed=n

Buer, S. V., Strandhagen, J. O., & Chan, F. T. (2018). The link between Industry 4.0 and lean manufacturing: mapping current research and establishing a research agenda. International journal of production research56(8), 2924-2940. Retrieved on 11th Oct, 2021 from: https://ntnuopen.ntnu.no/ntnu-xmlui/bitstream/handle/11250/2581150/Authors%27+postprint+-+Investigating+the+link+between+I4.0+and+LM_final.pdf?sequence=1

Sousa, E., Silva, F. J. G., Ferreira, L. P., Pereira, M. T., Gouveia, R., & Silva, R. P. (2018). Applying SMED methodology in cork stoppers production. Procedia manufacturing17, 611-622. Retrieved on 11th Oct, 2021 from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2351978918312204/pdf?md5=b4915d66556c510476c5635b22cd9922&pid=1-s2.0-S2351978918312204-main.pdf

Kamble, S., Gunasekaran, A., & Dhone, N. C. (2020). Industry 4.0 and lean manufacturing practices for sustainable organisational performance in Indian manufacturing companies. International Journal of Production Research58(5), 1319-1337. Retrieved on 11th Oct, 2021 from: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00207543.2019.1630772

Ahmad, M. O., Dennehy, D., Conboy, K., & Oivo, M. (2018). Kanban in software engineering: A systematic mapping study. Journal of Systems and Software137, 96-113. Retrieved on 11th Oct, 2021 from: https://www.academia.edu/download/62009807/Ahmad_et_al.__2018__Kanban_SLR20200206-77431-njb31x.pdf

Souza, J. P. E., & Alves, J. M. (2018). Lean-integrated management system: A model for sustainability improvement. Journal of Cleaner Production172, 2667-2682. Retrieved on 11th Oct, 2021 from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Joao-Paulo-De-Souza/publication/321185264_Lean_Integrated_Management_System_a_model_for_Sustainability_Improvement/links/5f32c928299bf13404baa7f7/Lean-Integrated-Management-System-a-model-for-Sustainability-Improvement.pdf

Improta, G., Romano, M., Di Cicco, M. V., Ferraro, A., Borrelli, A., Verdoliva, C., … & Cesarelli, M. (2018). Lean thinking to improve emergency department throughput at AORN Cardarelli hospital. BMC health services research18(1), 1-9. Retrieved on 11th Oct, 2021 from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12913-018-3654-0

Yadav, G., Luthra, S., Huisingh, D., Mangla, S. K., Narkhede, B. E., & Liu, Y. (2020). Development of a lean manufacturing framework to enhance its adoption within manufacturing companies in developing economies. Journal of Cleaner Production245, 118726. Retrieved on 11th Oct, 2021 from: https://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:1384296/FULLTEXT01.pdf

Pande, P. S., Neuman, R. P., & Cavanaugh, R. R. (2014). Six Sigma way: How to maximize the impact of your change and improvement efforts. McGraw-Hill Education. Retrieved on 11th Oct, 2021 from: https://www.accessengineeringlibrary.com/binary/mheaeworks/a573887dd7b34a5e/dae820374e222eb48da17f365af06b87f46bb8eec4758e63873f8a4ab1431fe1/book-summary.pdf

Rother, M., & Shook, J. (2003). Learning to see: value stream mapping to add value and eliminate muda. Lean Enterprise Institute. Retrieved on 11th Oct, 2021 from: https://www.academia.edu/download/47839866/Learning_to_see.pdf        

Abbas, J. (2020). Impact of total quality management on corporate green performance through the mediating role of corporate social responsibility. Journal of Cleaner Production, 242, 118458. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.118458

Acquah, I. S. K., Essel, D., Baah, C., Agyabeng-Mensah, Y., &Afum, E. (2021). Investigating the efficacy of isomorphic pressures on the adoption of green manufacturing practices and its influence on organizational legitimacy and financial performance. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, 32(7), 1399–1420. https://doi.org/10.1108/jmtm-10-2020-0404

Arredondo-Soto, K. C., Carrillo-Gutiérrez, T., Solís-Quinteros, M., & Hernández-Escobedo, G. (2017). A Theoretical Framework About the Impact of Human Factors on Manufacturing Process Performance. Management and Industrial Engineering, 327–352. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-56871-3_16

Awan, U., Sroufe, R., &Shahbaz, M. (2021). Industry 4.0 and the circular economy: A literature review and recommendations for future research. Business Strategy and the Environment, 30(4), 2038–2060. https://doi.org/10.1002/bse.2731

Caballero-Morales, S.-O. (2021). Innovation as Recovery Strategy for SMEs in Emerging Economies during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Research in International Business and Finance, 57, 101396. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ribaf.2021.101396

Camp, R. B. (2013). Sustainable lean: the story of a cultural transformation. CRC Press.

Camuffo, A., &Gerli, F. (2018). Modeling management behaviors in lean production environments. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 38(2), 403–423. https://doi.org/10.1108/ijopm-12-2015-0760

Carlier, M. (2021). Toyota worldwide vehicle production 2019 | Statista. Statista; Statista. https://www.statista.com/statistics/267272/worldwide-vehicle-production-of-toyota/

Caterpillar Inc Lean Production. (2020). Caterpillar | Manufacturing Smarter, Not Harder. Https://Www.caterpillar.com/En/News/CaterpillarNews/Strategy/Ar-Lean-Manufacturing.html. https://www.caterpillar.com/en/news/caterpillarNews/strategy/ar-lean-manufacturing.html

Ch’ng, P.-C., Cheah, J., &Amran, A. (2021). Eco-innovation practices and sustainable business performance: The moderating effect of market turbulence in the Malaysian technology industry. Journal of Cleaner Production, 283, 124556. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.124556

Chiarini, A., Baccarani, C., &Mascherpa, V. (2018). Lean production, Toyota Production System and Kaizen philosophy. The TQM Journal, 30(4), 425–438. https://doi.org/10.1108/tqm-12-2017-0178

Cox, I., Gaudard, M. A., & Stephens, M. L. (2016). Visual six sigma: making data analysis lean. John Wiley & Sons.

Das, A., &Dey, S. (2021). Global manufacturing value networks: assessing the critical roles of platform ecosystems and Industry 4.0. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, 32(6), 1290–1311. https://doi.org/10.1108/jmtm-04-2020-0161

Dillinger, F., Kagerer, M., & Reinhart, G. (2021). Concept for the development of a Lean 4.0 reference implementation strategy for manufacturing companies. Procedia CIRP, 104, 330–335. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procir.2021.11.056

Harlin, U., & Berglund, M. (2020). Designing for sustainable work during industrial startups—the case of a high-growth entrepreneurial firm. Small Business Economics, 57, 807–819. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-020-00383-3

Haronian, E., & Sacks, R. (2021). Production Control in Earthworks: Concepts and Metrics. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 147(10), 04021127. https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)co.1943-7862.0002091

Kosven, E. (2020, September 5). The Caterpillar Production System. ISSSP for Lean Six Sigma. https://isssp.org/the-caterpillar-production-system/

Loyd, N., Harris, G., Gholston, S., & Berkowitz, D. (2020). Development of a lean assessment tool and measuring the effect of culture from employee perception. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, 31(7), 1439–1456. https://doi.org/10.1108/jmtm-10-2019-0375

Mazareanu, E. (2021). Caterpillar – global revenue 2014-2020. Statista. https://www.statista.com/statistics/267814/global-sales-and-revenue-streams-of-caterpillar/

Migliavacca, G., Rossi, M., Siface, D., Marzoli, M., Ergun, H., Rodríguez-Sánchez, R., Hanot, M., Leclerq, G., Amaro, N., Egorov, A., Gabrielski, J., Matthes, B., &Morch, A. (2021). The Innovative FlexPlan Grid-Planning Methodology: How Storage and Flexible Resources Could Help in De-Bottlenecking the European System. Energies, 14(4), 1194. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14041194

Mitchell, M. (2015). The Lean Way of Parker Hannifin’s Safety Culture. Www.ehstoday.com. https://www.ehstoday.com/safety/article/21916946/the-lean-way-of-parker-hannifins-safety-culture

Powell, D., &Reke, E. (2019). No Lean Without Learning: Rethinking Lean Production as a Learning System. IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, 566, 62–68. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-30000-5_8

Rajini, J., Nagaraju, D., & Narayanan, S. (2018). Integration of lean, Six Sigma and theory of constraints for productivity improvement of mining industry. International Journal of Productivity and Quality Management, 24(3), 424. https://doi.org/10.1504/ijpqm.2018.092986

Richey, R. G., Roath, A. S., Adams, F. G., & Wieland, A. (2021). A Responsiveness View of logistics and supply chain management. Journal of Business Logistics. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbl.12290

Ridley, S. J., Ijomah, W. L., &Corney, J. R. (2019). Improving the efficiency of remanufacture through enhanced pre-processing inspection – a comprehensive study of over 2000 engines at Caterpillar remanufacturing, U.K. Production Planning & Control, 30(4), 259–270. https://doi.org/10.1080/09537287.2018.1471750

Roos, D., Womack, J. and Jones, D., (2014). The Machine That Changed The World: Free Press.

Satoglu, S., Ustundag, A., Cevikcan, E., &Durmusoglu, M. B. (2017). Lean Production Systems for Industry 4.0. Springer Series in Advanced Manufacturing, 43–59. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57870-5_3

Schumacher, S., Bildstein, A., &Bauernhansl, T. (2020). The Impact of the Digital Transformation on Lean Production Systems. Procedia CIRP, 93, 783–788. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procir.2020.03.066

Shokri, A., Antony, J., Garza-Reyes, J. A., & Upton, M. (2021). Scoping review of the readiness for sustainable implementation of Lean Six Sigma projects in the manufacturing sector. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 38(8), 1747–1770. https://doi.org/10.1108/ijqrm-08-2020-0261

Statista Research Department. (2015). Italy: lean management within Industry 4.0 2015. Statista. https://www.statista.com/statistics/626112/lean-management-within-industry-4-0-in-italy/

Stocker, F., Arruda, M. P., Mascena, K. M. C., &Boaventura, J. M. G. (2020). Stakeholder engagement in sustainability reporting: A classification model. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 27(5), 2071–2080. https://doi.org/10.1002/csr.1947

Tekin, M., Arslandere, M., Etlioğlu, M., Koyuncuoğlu, Ö.,&Tekin, E. (2018). An Application of SMED and Jidoka in Lean Production. Proceedings of the International Symposium for Production Research 2018, 530–545. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-92267-6_45

Tortorella, G., Miorando, R., Meiriño, M., &Sawhney, R. (2019). Managing practitioners’ experience and generational differences for adopting lean production principles. The TQM Journal, 31(5), 758–771. https://doi.org/10.1108/tqm-02-2019-0041

Tseng, M.-L., Tran, T. P. T., Ha, H. M., Bui, T.-D., & Lim, M. K. (2021). Sustainable industrial and operation engineering trends and challenges Toward Industry 4.0: a data driven analysis. Journal of Industrial and Production Engineering, 38(8), 581–598. https://doi.org/10.1080/21681015.2021.1950227

British Dissertation Help (May 25, 2022) Lean Operations And Six-Sigma
. Retrieved from https://www.britishdissertationhelp.com/lean-operations-and-six-sigma/.
"Lean Operations And Six-Sigma
.
" British Dissertation Help - May 25, 2022, https://www.britishdissertationhelp.com/lean-operations-and-six-sigma/
British Dissertation Help March 11, 2022 Lean Operations And Six-Sigma
.
, viewed May 25, 2022,<https://www.britishdissertationhelp.com/lean-operations-and-six-sigma/>
British Dissertation Help - Lean Operations And Six-Sigma
.
[Internet]. [Accessed May 25, 2022]. Available from: https://www.britishdissertationhelp.com/lean-operations-and-six-sigma/
"Lean Operations And Six-Sigma
.
" British Dissertation Help - Accessed May 25, 2022. https://www.britishdissertationhelp.com/lean-operations-and-six-sigma/
"Lean Operations And Six-Sigma
.
" British Dissertation Help [Online]. Available: https://www.britishdissertationhelp.com/lean-operations-and-six-sigma/. [Accessed: May 25, 2022]