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Individual Research Project 

Acknowledgement

I would like to acknowledge with gratitude, my debt of thanks to all the people for their advice and encouragement. I would specially want to convey my thankfulness to my professor, who has guided and assisted me whenever I needed any help during the study. Finally, I would like to thank my peers and family members who have given me immense support during the conduction of the entire research study.

Abstract

Background: Covid-19 has created a drastic change in most of the industries across the world. Previous studies have highlighted that the tourism industry was one of the greatest markets in the world until the world met a pandemic in the 21stcentury, Covid-19. Taking it into consideration, this study has aimed to analyse the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic in the travel and tourism industry in the UK and review the current situation of this industry in this period.

Method: A systematic literature review has been performed using 11 relevant studies to meet this aim. In this particular context, Google Scholar, Science Direct and Springer have been used as online databases for collecting articles required for this systematic literature review.

Result:The findings of the selected articles have mostly supported each other and indicated that the Covid-19 pandemic crisis has significantly impacted overall growth and management process of the travel and tourism industry in the UK.

Conclusion: Decline in revenue, profits, customer number and GDP contributions are the main issues faced by this industry due to Covid-19 pandemic in the UK. This crisis has chanced customer demands and their intentions to travel again. However, the government need to support these organisations to offer sustainable and technologically advanced services to revive its condition. 

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction. 8

1.1 Introduction and Research Background. 8

1.2 Research Aim.. 10

1.3 Research Objectives. 10

Chapter 2: Theoretical Framework. 11

2.1 Introduction. 11

2.2 Impact of Covid-19 on the travel and tourism industry. 11

2.3 Current situation of the travel and tourism industry. 17

2.4 Expected situation of the travel and tourism industry in the next few years. 20

2.5 Initiatives are taken by the government for improving the current situation. 22

Chapter 3: Methodology. 24

3.1 Introduction. 24

3.2 Research Strategy. 24

3.3 Data collection method. 24

3.4 Data Sources. 25

3.5 Inclusion and Exclusion criteria. 26

3.6 Locating Studies. 27

3.7 Used keywords. 27

3.8 Study Selection. 28

3.9 Analysis and Synthesis. 29

3.10 Ethical Consideration. 30

Chapter 4: Systematic Literature Review.. 31

4.1 Introduction. 31

4.2 Descriptive Review.. 31

4.3 Content or Thematic Analysis. 36

Chapter 5: Findings and Discussion. 41

Chapter 6: Conclusion and recommendations. 43

6.1 Conclusions. 43

6.2 Linking with objectives. 43

6.3 Recommendations. 45

6.4 Research Limitations. 45

6.5 Future scope. 45

References. 46

Appendix 1: Ethics Form.. 52

List of Figures

Figure 1.1: Travel and Tourism industry’s contribution to GDP in the UK (2012-2020) 6

Figure 2.1: Arrival of international tourism to the UK.. 10

Figure 2.2: Changes in international and domestic air passenger traffic in the UK.. 11

Figure 2.3: Percentage of rates of occupancy. 12

Figure 2.4: Changes in accommodation occupancy rates. 13

Figure 2.5: Changes in labour market associated with to travel and tourism industry in the UK.. 13

Figure 2.6: Visits and spending of air passengers in the UK.. 16

Figure 2.7: Domestic and international spending for UK tourism sector 16

Figure 2.8: Forecast of revenue growth of the UK travel and tourism industry. 19

Figure 3.1: The process of systematic literature review and article selection. 26

List of Tables

Table 3.1: Exclusion and Inclusion criteria. 23

Table 4.1: List of selected articles. 32

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Introduction and Research Background

The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has not only impacted public health, but also it also has severely affected the global travel and tourism industry which is one of the biggest contributors to the global economy. Recent report shows that total contribution of the travel and tourism sector worldwide to the global economy reached US$8.8 trillion in 2018 (World Travel & Tourism Council, 2021). Travel and tourism are also one of the largest and fastest-growing industries in the UK and it is expected to grow at least 3.8% by 2025 (Condorferries, 2021). This industry shows a continuous increment in the contribution to the UK economy and employment. Figure 1.1 shows that the UK travel and tourism industry contributed £213.8 billion and £237.6 billion to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2017 and 2019 respectively (Statista, 2021). On the contrary, this contribution has become only £89.6 billion in 2020 due to the Covid-19 pandemic (Statista, 2021).

Travel and Tourism industry’s contribution to GDP in the UK (2012-2020)

Figure 1.1: Travel and Tourism industry’s contribution to GDP in the UK (2012-2020)

(Source: Statista, 2021)

On the contrary, due to this pandemic, the global revenue from the travel and tourism industry has decreased by 20% to a forecasted 568.6 billion U.S. dollars from 711.94 billion U.S. dollars (Statista, 2021). This report also indicates that the highest decline in this industry revenue has taken place in the Europe region representing the decline to 124 billion U.S. dollars in 2020 from 211.97 billion U.S. dollars in 2019.

A number of sectors are associated with the travel and tourism industry, they have also greatly been affected by this crisis. For instance, as per the report of 2021, the air passengers’ arrival to the UK has declined by 98.3% to 112,300 in April 2020 from 6,804,900 in February 2020 (Office for National Statistics, 2021). This report also shows that the employment rate in the accommodation for visitors has fallen by 21.5% in June 2020 compared to June 2019. It has also been reported that the rate of hotel occupancy across the UK has dropped by 64% in 2020 (Department for Digital, Culture, Media & Sport, 2021). This report also shows that falling demand in this industry, a drastic change has also taken place in its supply chain. For example, almost 35% of the total tourism businesses in the UK have reported a significant fall in turnover of 50% in April 2021 (Department for Digital, Culture, Media & Sport, 2021). Apart from that, the turnover in the travel and accommodation agencies in this country has shown the sharpest fall in t6he first national lockdown, representing a 9.3% decline in May 2020 (Office for National Statistics, 2021). This significant fall in the cash flow of these tourism and associated businesses indicates their poor financial health. This present research has focused on these problems to find out effective ways of recovery.

Significant fall in revenue and contribution to the national economy are the main issues associated with the travel and tourism industry in both the national and global contexts (Uğur&Akbıyık, 2020). On the other hand, it has been argued by Rahman et al. (2021) that this industry is facing different management issues during this pandemic period which in turn impacts its overall performance. Due to this reason, this present research has focused on these issues and based on that, it is going to analyse the current situation of this industry. In the present time, these are the issues because, during this Covid-19 post-pandemic period, this industry has not been able to recover all of the financial and other aspects affected by this pandemic crisis (Office for National Statistics, 2021). This present research can shed light on this matter by finding out the possible ways of recovery by reviewing the current situation of this industry.

1.2 Research Aim

The key aim of this research is to analyse the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic in the travel and tourism industry in the UK and review the current situation of this industry in the post-pandemic period.

1.3 Research Objectives

The key objectives of this present research are as follows.

  • What issues have been faced by the travel and tourism industry due tothe impact of the Covid -19 pandemic?
  • What is the current situation of the UK travel and tourism industry in the -Covid-19 pandemic period?
  • How can the travel and tourism industry improve its present condition by mitigating the issues related to the pandemic crisis?

Chapter 2: Theoretical Framework

2.1Introduction

In this chapter, the concept and present situation of the travel and tourism industry in the UK are explained based on the existing literature and industry reports. This chapter provides an insight on the impact of Covid-19 pandemic on the travel and tourism industry in UK based on the findings from relevant studies.

2.2 Impact of Covid-19 on the travel and tourism industry

According to Škare et al. (2021), in the last few years, the World has experienced a number of virus outbreaks with different levels of mortality rates and infections but the Covid-19 pandemic has shown the most severe impact on the businesses sectors. As per the findings of this study, this Covid-19 pandemic crisis has the most long-lasting negative impacts on the economy as well as the tourism industry compared to other previous epidemic crises. Similarly, Figure 2.1 shows that due to the introduction of lockdown restrictions, the number of international tourist arrivals in the UK has fallen by -97% in April 2020 (Fraserofallander, 2021).

Arrival of international tourism to the UK

Figure 2.1: Arrival of international tourism to the UK

(Source: Fraserofallander, 2021)

As the travel and tourism industry is associated with a number of sectors such as aviation, hospitality or food and beverages, accommodation businesses, sports and so on, the changes in these sectors have impacted the overall growth of this industry (Office for National Statistics, 2021). The insights of the sectors are discussed below.

As highlighted in figure 2.2, the arrivals of air passengers have fallen to 112,300 in April 2020 from 6.8 million in 2019, indicating a 56.5% drop (Office for National Statistics, 2021). This report also shows that only 19,862 passenger vehicles travelled in April 2020 while this number was 227,393 in April 2019, indicating a 91.3% drop. Similarly, it has been pointed out by Gallego& Font (2021), during 2020, the desire to travel has decreased by 50% in the Americas and Europe. It indicates that the air passenger division of the travel and tourism industry in the UK and other countries have been severely impacted by the pandemic crisis.

Changes in international and domestic air passenger traffic in the UK

Figure 2.2: Changes in international and domestic air passenger traffic in the UK

(Source: Office for National Statistics, 2021)

Figure 2.3 shows that there were opposite results in the accommodation businesses, indicating occupancy increase to 72% in August 2020 from 19% in April 2020m (Office for National Statistics, 2021). Supporting this aspect, it has been highlighted by Nicola et al. (2020) that London has the most stable occupancy rate in the accommodation sector with around 47%.

Percentage of rates of occupancy

Figure 2.3: Percentage of rates of occupancy

(Source: Office for National Statistics, 2021)

            On the contrary, it has been argued by Gössling et al. (2020) through figure 2.4 that the pandemic crisis has also impacted the global accommodation business by indicating a 50% decline in the guest numbers in 2020 compared to 2019. Reviewing both of these aspects, it has been understood that due to the withdrawal of the first lockdown, the number of visitors has increased and at this time.

Changes in accommodation occupancy rates

Figure 2.4: Changes in accommodation occupancy rates

(Source: Office for National Statistics, 2021)

The labour market associated with the travel and tourism sector in the UK has also significantly been affected by the Covid-19 crisis or lockdown. As highlighted by figure 2.5 that employment in the accommodation businesses for visitors in the UK has fallen by 21.5% in the second quarter of 2020 compared to the same period in 2019 (Office for National Statistics, 2021). This report has also shown that the largest decline in employment has taken place in the people having age between 25 to 34 years. 

Changes in labour market associated with to travel and tourism industry in the UK

Figure 2.5: Changes in labour market associated with to travel and tourism industry in the UK

(Source: Office for National Statistics, 2021)

It has been stated by Gössling et al. (2020) that due to the announcement of lockdown, the number of visitors in different tourism destinations in the UK and other countries have saturated to be dressed and it resulted in lower demands from prepared foods and beverages. In this similar context, in order to maintain social distancing policy, restaurant closure has become a common aspect in most of countries. It has become a key challenge for such restaurants to maintain a minimum profit margin and liquidity. In this similar context, it has been reported as being the largest sub-sector of travel and tourism; it has been forced to be closed due to lockdown restrictions (Fraserofallander, 2021).

From the above discussion, it has been understood that lowering demand is one of the key issues faced by the global travel and tourism industry during the Covid-19 pandemic period. As per the findings of Kanda &Kivimaa (2020), Covid-19 has impacted the intention of people to travel nationally and internationally as well. It has further resulted in a significant fall in the consumer number and revenue of this industry. In this similar context, it has been revealed by Rahman et al. (2021) that the travel behaviour of people has changed at the individual level because of the Covi-19 pandemic crisis. For instance, this article has found that in order to avoid crowded areas and maintain social distance, many people have shown a preference for ride or bike-sharing as transportation options during this time. As a result, it has become difficult for travel and tourism companies to change their transportation patterns during this short period. Supporting this aspect, Bucsky (2020) has highlighted that public transportation has been at higher risk during this pandemic period. From this context, it has been understood that the changed travel behaviour of people has become a concerning issue in the tourism and travel industry due to the Covid-19 pandemic.

On the other hand, it has been revealed by Gössling et al. (2020) that due to the unavailability of tests at the very beginning of this pandemic period, many asymptomatic people traced internationally as well as nationally which has increased the direct transmission of Coronavirus. It further has negatively impacted the travel intention of people and as a result, the number of visitors has started to decrease. However, after the announcement of lockdown, the overall scenario of this industry has drastically changed (Škare et al. 2021). Supporting this aspect, it has been pointed out by Gössling et al. (2020) that in this period, 41% of its associated businesses had registered cancellation of car rental, cap sites, hotels, and destination marketing organisations (DMOs)and so on by March 2020. As a result, 65% of tourism businesses already had reported difficulties in paying invoices in March 2020.

2.3 Current situation of the travel and tourism industry

            It has been reported by The World Travel & Tourism Council (WTTC) that due to lack of spending from foreign visitors, the UK travel and tourism industry shows a delay in recovery (Hospitalitynet, 2021). This organisation mainly blames the strict and un-clarified travel restrictions despite a successful rollout for this delay. This report also shows that the spending of domestic visitors in this country has risen to 49% while the international visitors’ spending has not increased as shown by previous research the prediction that is 50% of the 2020 figures (Hospitalitynet, 2021).

As per the report of 2021 shown in figure 2.6, the UK tourism industry has received 277,000 visits in the second quarter of 2021 which is 97% below compared to the same period of 2019 (Visitbritain, 2021). This report also shows that the visitors have spent £386 million in the second quarter of 2021 which is also 94% below compared to quarter 2 of 2019. These statistics indicate that it has not been possible for this industry to completely recover the issues related to spending and visitors’ numbers in the air passengers in these current years.

Visits and spending of air passengers in the UK

Figure 2.6: Visits and spending of air passengers in the UK

(Source: Visitbritain, 2021)

            On the other hand, as per the report of November 2021, the central scenario for inbound tourism this year is for 7.7 million visits that represent 19% declines from 2019. This report also shows that the visitors have spent £6.9 billion this year which indicates 11% growth from 2020 but this amount is still only 24% of the 2019 level (Visitbritain, 2021). Similarly, the report of Oxford Economics forecasts shows that inbound tourism spending is still projected to be down to 45% of 2019 levels in 2021 (Department for Digital, Culture, Media & Sport, 2021).

Domestic and international spending for UK tourism sector

Figure 2.7: Domestic and international spending for UK tourism sector

(Source: World Travel and Tourism Council, 2021)

            As per the report of WTTC, in 2021, among the total spending in this industry, domestic spending is 85% (USD 75.6 billion) while the rest 15% (USD 13 billion) comes from international visitors (World Travel and Tourism Council, 2021). From this perspective, it has been understood that due to a lack of proper withdrawal of the travel restriction, the UK travel and tourism industry is still facing issues in improving the previous situation. Similarly, it has been reported that the year-on-year growth of travel agencies’ output growth in the UK has remained negative until March 2021 while from April 2021 this growth has started to show positive results. As per the report of May 2021, the output of the UK travel agencies has risen by 153% compared to the same period in 2020 (Statista, 2021). On the contrary, it has been reported that despite easing some travel restrictions, international travel from the UK is not normalized yet which indicates a further fall in the passengers’ number (BBC, 2021).

            Apart from that in the UK, many parks are still closed to enforce social distancing which can further help to prevent other Convid-19 waves in the future (Nicola et al. 2020). It also impacts the intention of many people to travel in both national and international contexts. On the contrary, the travel firms in the UK have asked the Government to provide urgent financial help as Covid-19 restrictions would come into force again due to Omicron hits (The Guardian, 2021). The UK government has announced that all the 11 red-listed countries would be removed from its travel list to prevent this country from the infection by the Omicron variant (BBC, 2021). Apart from that, new guidelines of the government show that all arrivals in the UK from any red-listed countries need to pay extra and maintain self-isolation in the pre-booked and government-approved hotels in these countries. In this context, many travellers from these countries agree to pay thousands of pounds for staying in the government-approved hotel. From this point of view, it has been understood that there are both positive and mostly negative outcomes of this restriction in the UK travel industry. Apart from that, due to the discovery and increased cases of Omicron variant, new omicron travel rules have been announced in the UK which indicates a further fall in its growth in the next months or years (BBC, 2021).

On the other hand, employment in this industry is also a threat due to a huge amount of job cuts in the last year. It has been pointed out by Dias et al. (2021) that almost 100 million jobs in this industry are at risk indicating a minimum of 60% to 80% in the global tourism sector.

2.4 Expected situation of the travel and tourism industry in the next few years

As per the forecast performed before the discovery of the Omicron variant of Covid-19, inbound visits from different foreign countries into the UK and their spending would increase to 24.0 million and £19.2 billion respectively by representing 59% and 67% growth in 2020 (Visitbritain, 2021). Apart from that, this report also shows that there would be £56.2 billion spending on domestic visitors by the end of 2021 representing a 65% growth compared to 2020. On the other hand, it has been forecasted by WTTC that the contribution of the UK travel and tourism industry to the national GDP would rise by 53% by 2022, and it may result in an additional £66 billion to its national economy (Hospitalitynet, 2021). In addition to that as per the report of WTTC research, the rise in employment in this industry would be 14% in 2022 by ensuring 580,000 people.

Forecast of revenue growth of the UK travel and tourism industry

Figure 2.8: Forecast of revenue growth of the UK travel and tourism industry

(Source: Statista, 2021)

Figure 2.8 highlights that in the entre travel and tourism industry in the UK, the revenue of the accommodation or hotel sector is expected to grow by 133.9% in 2022 while Cruises and package holidays are expected to grow by 13.4% and 18.5%. Thus, the entire UK travel and tourism market’s revenue is expected to grow by 93.3% in 2022 and further 8.6% in 2025 (: Statista, 2021). On the contrary, it has also been reported that the UK travel industry is predicted to be 30% down in 2022 due to improper management (Independent, 2021). It indicates that resuming this industry services by following proper guidelines can improve the situation of this industry in the new few years.

2.5 Initiatives are taken by the government for improving the current situation

The UK government has taken several initiatives to help the travel and tourism industry to cope with the Covi-19 pandemic and post-pandemic crisis. The UK government has already contributed £25 billion to the travel and hospitality industry since March 2020 (Department for Digital, Culture, Media & Sport, 2021). Among these, £12 billion is considered for the Coronavirus Job Retention Scheme, while £5 billion and £2.5 billion are for Bounceback loans and VAT cuts. The primary aim of these government initiatives is to recover international tourism to pre-pandemic levels by 2023 and domestic tourism by 2022 (Gov. UK, 2021). Apart from that, the UK government has re-nationalised the airline services to prevent this country from the further transfer of Coronavirus. In this particular context, with the collaboration with the UK government, VisitBritain worked to develop a recovery companion to promote UK tourism during the Covid-19 pandemic (Sharma et al. 2021).

Similarly, it has been stated by Stankov et al. (2021) that mindfulness is one of the great initiatives in this industry to recover its growth again. Mindfulness refers to a business practice that brings a certain quality of attention to bring moment-by-moment experiences for making individuals capable of coping with a particular problem by increasing awareness. This particular study has also concluded that the Covid-19 outbreak has mobilised the pleading of society or the consumers of the travel and tourism industry to their responsible behaviour. In this way, it has become possible to increase awareness among travellers regarding the Covid-19 restrictions and to motivate them to travel safely. On the contrary, it has been found by Sharma et al. (2021) that technology or online-based sustainable tourism service has become one of the key demands in the travel industry in a global context. Due to this reason, the implementation of innovative technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI) and robot automation technologies can help to maintain the social distancing guidelines. Thus, technology-based interventions can help to handle the post-pandemic situation. 

On the other hand, in order to travel to safely resume in the United States, the “Travel in the New Normal” guidance  is being followed (OCED, 2021).This guidance has focused on mainly 6 key areas including the adaptation and implementation of enhanced sanitation procedures and touchless solutions. In addition to that other areas include adaptation and modification of operations and employee practices, promotion of health screening measures for employees and implementation of best practices in food and beverage service (OCED, 2021). Following these guidelines, it would also be possible to resume the travel and tourism services in the UK.

Chapter 3: Methodology

3.1 Introduction

In this chapter, the methods which would be followed to conduct the systematic literature review are explained in detail with the justifications for selecting the particular methods. In this particular context the selected research strategy, data collection and analysis methods are explained.

3.2 Research Strategy

In this present research, positivism philosophy would be followed to conduct the systematic literature review in a deductive research approach. In this particular context, explanatory research design would be followed. As in this research, only secondary relevant articles would be reviewed for obtaining research results, the selection of explanatory design can be most effective for this research (Saunders et al. 2007). On the other hand, as this study is going to justify and contribute to the existing literature related to the impact of Covid-19 on tourism and travel industry, the selection of the deductive research approach is also justified. However, based on the qualitative research strategy, the entire data collection and analysis process are going to be designed.

3.3 Data collection method

Data analysis methods can be of mainly two types including primary and secondary methods. In primary research, data is collected directly from the participants through surveys, interviews, focus group discussion and so on (Saunders et al. 2007). On the contrary, in secondary research, data is collected from different existing secondary sources such as journals, news, articles, books, government or industry reports and so on. Structured or systematic literature review is one of the well-known methods of secondary research.

In this current research, a secondary qualitative research is performed through systematic literature review. In this particular context, a number of relevant studies are collected and selected for further review. Using a number of authentic data bases, relevant articles have been selected to collect important data for obtaining significant research findings by meeting specific research aims and questions.

According to Aminudin et al. (2020), a systematic literature review is a process of examining a number of formulated questions that uses explicit or systematic methods to identify, select as well as critically appraise relevant studies. In this method, required data are collected from the studies which are included in this current research. It has also been seen that the claims and interests of the researcher are justified through systematic literature review which further allows identifying literature gaps and scope for future research. From this point of view, it can be stated that the selection of systematic literature review as the data collection and analysis method is justified for this study. Apart from this, in this post-pandemic situation, it is difficult to collect data from the participants with direct contact. As for this reason, the primary data collection method has not been chosen in this research. It also indicates the advantage of this method selection for this present research.

3.4 Data Sources

            In this present research, different online databases such as Google Scholar, Science Direct and Springer have been used for collecting articles required for the systematic literature review. Then, data has been collected from these selected articles. From this point of view, it can be stated that these three above mentioned databases are the actual data sources for this present study. As these databases cover most of the publications including new and peer reviewed articles, these three databases have been chosen. Other databases such as Scopus require paid subscription and due to this reason, it has not been chosen.  Hence, it can be stated that the selection of these databases are justified for this research.

3.5 Inclusion and Exclusion criteria

            A certain inclusion as well as exclusion criteria have been followed in the study to select the most relevant articles for further review. The criteria are as follows.

Inclusion criteria Exclusion criteria
Only relevant studies are included in this study.Only the articles published after 2018 are included in this study because only these studies can give current insights related to the research topic. The articles published only in the English language as it is understandable to all.  The full text articles that can be accessed freely are only included in this study. Any irrelevant studies that do not include any of the used keywords are excluded from this data analysis. Any articles published before 2018 are not included in this study as these studies are not able to provide any current or Covid-19 pandemic related information. Any articles published apart from English language are excluded from this study.Any articles requiring paid subscription are not included in this study.
Table 3.1: Exclusion and Inclusion criteria

(Source: Self-created)

3.6 Locating Studies

            The first stage of the systematic literature review focuses on the search of a number of databases from where the relevant articles would be chosen. As mentioned above, in this research, mainly three databases including Google Scholar, Springer and Science Direct would be chosen. By following above mentioned exclusion and inclusion criteria, a number of articles would be chosen. At first, the tiles, keywords and abstracts of the found articles are considered as per the used keywords for further selection.

3.7 Used keywords

A number or keywords would be used to found the most relevant articles for conducting a systematic literature review for this study. In this particular context, ‘AND’ and ‘OR’ have been used to form the key words and then search for studies. Some of the keywords are “Covid-19 pandemic”, “travel and tourism industry”, “tourism in post-pandemic”, “Covid-19 impact on tourism industry”, “Covid-19 on tourism revenue or sales”, “Covid-19 and treads” and so on.

3.8 Study Selection

In the first stage of systematic literature review, using the above-mentioned keywords, a number of articles would be searched and collected from all the three databases. In this stage, the keywords are used; all the collected articles would be relevant. Thus, in this stage a total of 50 relevant articles have been collected from these online databases for further selection. In this way, 25 relevant articles have been selected from Google Scholar, 15 articles from Science Direct and 10 articles from Springer.

The process of systematic literature review and article selection

Figure 3.1: The process of systematic literature review and article selection

(Source: Self-catered)

            In the second stage, any articles the full text of which is not accessible have been removed from this list because, without full text access, it would not be possible to get data in detail. Apart from that any duplicate articles that are not published authentically have also been removed from this list. Thus, in this second stage, the total number of articles remains 40. Then, the titles as well as the abstract sections of the sorted articles have been read. Based on the importance including aims, methods and findings, the most relevant articles have been selected. In this way, in the third stage, a total of 15 articles have been sorted. Finally, the full texts of the sorted 15 articles have been read. Among these articles, which have focused on the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the global or UK travel and tourism sector and the current situation of the tourism industry after pandemic are selected for the final review. In addition to that, the studies that focus on the issues faced by the tourism industry due to the pandemic are also included in this study. The aim and result sections of the articles are mainly focused to meet the first three objectives of this present research. Thus, based on all of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 10 articles are selected for conducting systematic literature review.

3.9 Analysis and Synthesis

            The data analysis part of this research would be divided into two different sections including descriptive review and the content thematic analysis sections. In the descriptive review section, the list of the reviewed articles would be given along with a brief of all the papers. In this particular context, the author name, title, year of publications, aims, methods and key finding of those papers would be given. From this review, the relevance of the selected papers can be justified.

In the second parts, based on the used searching keywords and findings of the selected studies a number of themes would be selected. Then, those themes would be analysed following the content analysis methods using both supporting and contradicting data. In this way, it would be possible to review the selected 11 literature or articles based on the views of other authors. Thus, the overall systematic literature review would be conducted in this research to know the impact of Covid-19 pandemic in the travel and tourism industry in the UK and its current situation in this post-pandemic period.

3.10 Ethical Consideration

            There are a number of specific ethics of research which are needed to be maintained at the time of conducting a research to make sure that the ensure study has maintained ethical consideration. As in this study, only a secondary method is followed, the specific ethics of secondary search or literature review are needed to be maintained. In this context, ethical approval has been obtained from the university before starting the research work. Apart from that the authors of the used articles would be acknowledged properly within text citations to avoid ethical issues. However, all the data and information would be collected from authentic sources which would also be an approval of maintaining ethical consideration in this research. Chapter 4:

Chapter 4: Systematic Literature Review

4.1 Introduction

            In this chapter, the selected 11 literatures are reviewed to obtain the key findings. On the basis of the findings of these literatures, a total of three themesare developed which are further analysedfollowing the thematic or content analysis method. These themes are either accepted tor rejected with the help of supporting secondary data. Thus, this systematic literature review would help to meet the specific tree objectives of this research.

4.2Descriptive Review

On the basis of the specific objectives of this research, four key focus areas have been selected and based on the focus areas; the chosen articles have been divided. The brief of the selected 11 articles are given in the table below.            

Focus Area Title Authors Year Methods Findings
Current demands “Changes in air passenger demand as a result of the COVID-19 crisis: using Big Data to inform tourism policy” (Gallego& Font) 2021 Secondary quantitative The rate of people desire or show intention to travel has decreased during the pandemic and post pandemic situation as well.
“A mindful shift: an opportunity for mindfulness-driven tourism in a post-pandemic world” (Stankovet al.) 2020 Secondary qualitative Technology enhanced services and sustainable practices have become the major demands in the travel industry after the pandemic crisis and based on these demands, many tourism companies show a mindful shift in their services.
“The Effect of COVID-19 Pandemic: How are the Future Tourist Behavior” (Wachyuni&Kusumaningrum) 2020 Primary quantitative Most of the people show an intention to go back on tour and they prefer digital technology based service in their travelling process.
“Customer Satisfaction towards Hotel Industry in Malaysia: A Systematic Review of Pre-Covid19 Era” (Aminudin et al.) 2020 Secondary Qualitative (systematic literature review)  Quality services including food and travel and friendly communication systems are key drivers of customer satisfaction in the tourism industry.
Issues due to Covid-19 pandemic “Effect of Covid-19 pandemic on tourist travel risk and management perceptions” (Rahman et al.) 2021 Primary quantitative Due to the pandemic crisis, the travel and tourism industry is facing issues in managing service delivery, safety and hygiene, communication, distribution channel, transportation patterns and avoiding overpopulated destinations.
“Pandemics, tourism and global change: a rapid assessment of COVID-19” (Gössling et al.) 2020 Secondary qualitative The travel and tourism sector has lost their revenues and it has negatively impacted the amount of contribution to the global economy. The number of tourist arrivals has decreased and guest numbers in the accommodation sector have declined.
“The COVID-19 crisis, tourism and sustainable development” (Jones & Comfort) 2020 Secondary qualitative The Covid-19 crisis has damaged social and economic consequences of sustainable development in the tourism industry. The contribution to the GDP has also decreased due to this issue.
“Tourism and Hospitality industry resilience during the Covid-19 pandemic: Evidence from England.” (Ntounis et al.) 2021 Primary quantitative Tourism and travel industry is more vulnerable to Covid-19 crisis compared to other sectors. Longer lockdown and uncertain time frames have resulted in job losses, revenue fall, and low economic contribution.
“Impacts of COVID-19 on global tourism industry: A cross-regional comparison” (Uğur&Akbıyık) 2020 Secondary quantitative The rate of sales and revenue of the travel and tourism sector have decreased as the consumers canceled their trips as per the govt rental regulations.
Ways of condition improvement “Reviving tourism industry post-COVID-19: A resilience-based framework” (Sharma et al.) 2021 Secondary qualitative Sustainable practices can improve the resilience of the tourism industry towards Covid-19 pandemic. In addition to that, technological innovations such as digital practices can help this industry to improve the current situation efficiently.
“Tourism governance during the COVID‑19 pandemic crisis: A proposal for a sustainable model to restore the tourism industry” (Robina-Ramírez et al.) 2021 Primary quantitative and qualitative  Sustainable operations can help to restore the tourism industry after the pandemic situation.
Table 4.1: List of selected articles

(Source: Self-created)

            As per the objectives or questions of this present research, the focus areas are considered as impact of Covid-19 on tourism sector, issues due to Covid-19 pandemic, current demands and ways of situation improvement. It has been seen that among the title 11 articles, 7 articles are based on secondary research while the rest 5 articles are based on primary research. From this point of view, it can be stated that the selected articles can give clear and significant insights on the research aim.

4.3 Content or Thematic Analysis

            As discussed in the methodology chapter, based on the objectives of the present research and key findings of the selected 11 articles, a thematic analysis is performed to obtain research findings.

Theme 1: Covid-19 pandemic crisis has negatively impacted revenue, economic contribution and employment in travel and tourism industry

According to Uğur&Akbıyı (2020), the rate of sales or number of guests in the travel industry including airline sector, accommodation sector and food sector has decreased after the announcement of lockdown. In this period, most of the travellers decided to delay or cancel their trips and as a result, their total revenue as well as sales has declined. Supporting this aspect, it has been revealed by Ntounis et al. (2021) that the travel and tourism industry in both the national and global context is much more vulnerable to the Covid-19 crisis compared to the other business sectors such as retail sector, construction sector and so on. This study has also revealed that due to long-term and uncertain lockdown during the pandemic crisis job losses, fall in sales or revenue and the contribution to the national economy have become a concerning outcome. Economic disruption is also a drastic outcome of Covid-19 pandemic crisis. In this similar context, it has been highlighted by Soliku et al. (2021) that a significant number of job losses have become a key concern in the travel and tourism industry during the pandemic period and it in turn negatively influences the industry’s contribution to national economic development. Similarly, it has been found by Ocheni et al. (2020) that revenue of the aviation industry globally has become 314 billion USD in 2020 from 581 billion USD in 2019. It indicates a significant loss in the revenue of the aviation as well as travel and tourism industry during the pandemic period. From this perspective, this particular theme can be agreed.

            As per the findings of Rahman et al. (2021), during the pandemic period, the travel and tourism organisations have faced a concerning issue regarding their business management process. It has been found that during this period, the majority of travellers have viewed their travel risks and management issues differently compared to pre-pandemic periods. In this period, many travellers have cancelled their trips suddenly to avoid visiting destinations if they consider it risky. It has become a key issue in the overall travel and destination management process in this industry. Similarly, it has been found by Sigala (2020) that most tourism organizations have faced destination management issues during pandemic situations and the demands and intentions of travel have been changed during this time.

On the other hand, it has been pointed out by Gössling et al. (2020) that the revenue of the travel and tourism industry has become 38% lower in 2020 with the comparison of 2019. This statistic indicates that revenue loss has become a key issue in the travel and tourism sector in a global context. Supporting these findings, Ocheni et al. (2020) has stated that revenue loss is a key issue in this sector as a result of Covid-19 pandemic crisis. Gössling et al. (2020) has also found that different events, tours and travel have been cancelled due to the announcement of lockdown which in turn has impacted the supply chain of this industry. As a result, other sectors such as airline, foods and beverages, restaurants, accommodation or hospitality have faced issues related to business management and loss in sales and revenue as well.

On the other hand, it has been found by Jones & Comfort (2020) that ineffective sustainable development is a problem in the tourism industry during the pandemic crisis. Due to low revenue and profit, many tourism organisations have not been able to take any effective sustainable approaches. In this similar context, it has been highlighted by Nhamo et al. (2020) that Covid-19 has negatively impacted many sustainable development goals (SDGs) leading to civic, public as well as private tourism organisations. 

Theme 2: The rate of people shown intention to travel has been decreased while the rest of travellers prefer technologically advanced and sustainable services in the current situation

According to Gallego& Font (2021), in the current pandemic situation, the number of people showing interest to travel again has decreased in the present Covid-19 pandemic crisis. This study has also revealed that the destination management organisations (DMOs) need to improve their evidence-based, big data analytics and decision-making skills to offer services as per the demands of the customers in this pandemic situation. From this perspective, it has been understood that in the current situation, as the number of travers have significantly declined in the pandemic situation, most of the organisations make their service decisions considering customers’ preferences to achieve competitive advantage. On the other hand, it has been pointed out by Stankov et al. (2020) that technologically advanced services that can help people to maintain social distance are mostly preferred by the customers in the current time. Additionally, different sustainable practices such as job creation, environment-friendly services also attract the customers in this current situation, supporting this aspect, Wachyuni&Kusumaningrum (2021) have stated that many tourist travellers show intention travel at the end of pandemic period but now they demand for technologically advanced mainly digital services for enhancing safety and efficiency in the overall procedure. Similarly, it has been highlighted by Aminudin et al. (2020) that a limited number of people in the current situation are showing intention to travel and they demand for quality services and effective communications systems. Thus, reviewing this literature, it has been understood that the number of customers in the UK travel and tourism industry has decreased and they mostly prefer quality, technologically advanced and sustainable services and hence, this theme can be accepted.

Theme 3: Sustainable practices as well as technological innovations towards service improvement can help to restore the tourism industry after the pandemic

            Sharma et al. (2021) have concluded that effective sustainable practices focusing on wellbeing, society and community, effective climate actions as well as digital transformation can revive the condition of the travel and tourism industry in the UK and other countries. For example, digital service technologies that can avoid human touches, effective virtual communication can attract more customers as these practices can ensure their health and safety. Supporting these findings, it has been stated by Robina-Ramírez et al. (2021) that sustainable operations can restore the situation of the travel and tourism industry at the end of the pandemic period by attracting more customers. In this particular context, reducing job losses, offering clean, quality and hygiene maintained services can be an effective way of improving the present condition of the travel and tourism industry by mitigating issues related to Covid-19 pandemic. Similarly, it has been reported that the Governments even in the UK need to take effective initiatives to minimise job losses, to cushion the blow to tourism build recovery in 2021 and beyond (OECD, 2021). In this context, the government policies may include restoring the confidence of travellers, promoting safe domestic as well as international tourism, strengthening cooperation between countries, building more sustainable and resilient tourism and so on. It has been understood that the tourism organisation as well as the national governments need to take effective initiatives to mitigate the risks and improve the present condition of this industry. Therefore, this theme can also be accepted.

Chapter 5: Findings and Discussion

The overall systematic literature review has focused on the three specific aspects of the travel and tourism industry including the impact of Covid-19 on this industry, current situation of this industry and the possible ways of improving this situation. In this way, from the analysis of the first theme, it has been seen that Covid-19 pandemic has mainly affected the revenue, employment, economic contribution, consumer behaviour and management process of the travel and tourism industry in the UK and many other countries. It has been found that the revenue of this industry has declined significantly in 2020 due to a range of restrictions in this period (Ocheni et al. 2020). It has also been found that in this time, these organisations have faced different operational, financial management and risk management issues. A number of job cuts in this industry due to the financial crisis is also a concerning issue related to Covid-19 (of Rahman et al. 2021). From these findings, it has been understood that Covid-19 has significantly affected the travel and tourism sector in the UK.

On the other hand, from the second thematic analysis, it has been observed that the travel and tourism sector has been drastically changed as a result of this pandemic crisis. The behaviour, intentions and preferences of the customers have been changed. For instance, in the present time, most of them prefer technologically advanced, digital and sustainable services that can ensure their health and safety. On the other hand, sustainable practices, community support, environmental services are the current trends in this industry in the UK (Aminudin et al. 2020). Such as job creation, environmental services, Moreover, the majority of the people are not interested in travel during this pandemic situation which in turn causes a significant loss and revenue decline in this sector (Wachyuni&Kusumaningrum, 2021).

It has been found from the analysis of the third theme that there are several ways of mitigating the issues related to Covid-19 pandemic and improving the current situation of the tourism and travel industry of this country. Improving decision making related to the offered services by considering the consumers’ preferences and current demands can be an effective way of improving the current situation. Implementation of big data analysis has also been recommended as an effective way of improving services by documenting preferences and demands of the customers (Robina-Ramírez et al. 2021). Apart from that, providing quality services including clean and hygiene services can attract the tourists and travelers again as it ensures their health and service (Sharma et al. (2021). Furthermore, as per the report of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the government also needs to take effective actions by developing and implementing policies to revive the travel and tourism industry in the end of the pandemic crisis.

Chapter 6: Conclusion and recommendations

6.1 Conclusions

In the end, it can be concluded from the overall systematic literature review that revenue and growth of the travel and tourism industry worldwide including in the UK have significantly impacted with the Coviud-19 pandemic situation. Compared to 2017, 2018 and 2019, the revenue, profit as well as the overall GDP contribution of this industry has significantly declined in 2020 and 2021. Many job losses have taken place in this pandemic period which is also a concerning issue of this industry. Due to several restrictions in both domestic and international travel and tourism, it has directly impacted the revenue of this industry. Thus, it has become the most affected industry in the UK in this pandemic period. Additionally, it can also be concluded that the service process and other aspects related to this industry have changed drastically. The behaviour, preferences and demands of the customers have also been changed and due to this reason, the organisations are changing their service related decisions. These organisations have focused on sustainable practices and technology innovations to offer more enhanced and safe services as per the current trends. Moreover, this study also has also revealed that certain effective initiatives such as implementing big data analysis, technologically advanced or digital services, and offering quality services can attract customers by improving their trust. The government also needs to play a crucial role in this similar context.

6.2 Linking with objectives

Linking with objective 1

            Reviewing the selected literatures and analysing the first theme, it has been observed that the most concerning issues faced by the UK travel and tourism industry during the pandemic crisis include decline in sales, revenue, profit and GDP contribution. Along with the uncertainties, shut-down of the organisations due to long-term lockdown, managing the overall business process are also identified issues experienced by this industry because of this pandemic crisis. Hence, it can be stated that the findings of this systematic literature review have linked the first objective of this study.

Linking with objective 2

            The findings of this study have concluded that preference for digital or other technologically advanced technologies that can allow the customers in maintaining social distancing such as touchless solutions have been increased. As for this reason, many organisations in this industry have started to take such initiatives. Thus, the findings of this study have also met the second objective.

Linking with objective 3

            From the results of the analysis of the third theme or the overall systematic analysis, it has been found that implementing and offering technologically innovative and sustainable practice can restore the resilience of this industry by mitigating Covid-19 pandemic related issues. The Governments of the countries also need to take effective initiatives to support these travel and tourism organisations in reviving their services. Taking these into consideration, it can be stated that the findings have also met the third objective of this research.  

6.3 Recommendations

Considering the above findings, it can be recommended that the travel and tourism organizations need to focus on digital services such as touch-less check in, virtual communication systems to meet the current needs. Additionally, they can also do much investment in their sustainable practices ro to attract more customers again.

6.4 Research Limitations

Due to this pandemic crisis, this study has been conducive only based on secondary data and no primary or real-time data have not been included which can be a limitation of this study. Apart from that a limited number of articles have been included in this systematic literature review as in the short period, only a few numbers of researches have been conducted on this similar field. It is also a limitation of this present study. 

6.5 Future scope

On the basis of the findings of this study, further studies can be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of different initiatives for improving the current situation of the travel and tourism industry during and post pandemic period. Additionally, primary data can be included in the future studies to more critically evaluate the impact of Covid-19 on this industry.

References

Aminudin, N., Hassan, N. A., Shaukani, N. F. A., & Jamal, S. A. (2020) Customer Satisfaction towards Hotel Industry in Malaysia: A Systematic Review of Pre-Covid19 Era. DOI: 10.24191/ij.v8i0.105

BBC (2021) Air travel yet to meaningfully restart, says UK industry, https://www.bbc.com/news/business-57967907

BBC (2021) Covid: New Omicron travel rules come into force, https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-59558131

BBC (2021) UK removes all 11 countries from red list, https://www.bbc.com/news/business-59653236

Bucsky, P. (2020). Modal share changes due to COVID-19: The case of Budapest. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, 8, 100141.

Condorferries (2021).UK TOURISM Statistics 2020-2021, https://www.condorferries.co.uk/uk-tourism-statistics

Department for Digital, Culture, Media & Sport (2021) The Tourism Recovery Plan, https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/992974/Tourism_Recovery_Plan__Web_Accessible_.pdf

Dias, Á.,Patuleia, M., Silva, R., Estêvão, J., & González-Rodríguez, M. R. (2021). Post-pandemic recovery strategies: revitalizing lifestyle entrepreneurship. Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events, 1-18. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/19407963.2021.1892124

Fraserofallander (2021) Covid-19 impact on the Tourism and Hospitality Sector, an insight from the latest Economic Commentary, https:// fraserofallander.org/covid-19-impact-on-the-tourism-and-hospitality-sector-an-insight-from-the-latest-economic-commentary/

Gallego, I., & Font, X. (2021). Changes in air passenger demand as a result of the COVID-19 crisis: Using Big Data to inform tourism policy. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 29(9), 1470-1489. DOI: 10.1080/09669582.2020.1773476

Gössling, S., Scott, D., & Hall, C. M. (2020). Pandemics, tourism and global change: a rapid assessment of COVID-19. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 29(1), 1-20. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2020.1758708

Gov. UK (2021) New plan to drive rapid recovery of tourism sector, https://www.gov.uk/government/news/new-plan-to-drive-rapid-recovery-of-tourism-sector

Hospitalitynet (2021) UK Travel & Tourism sector may only recover by a third this year, https://www.hospitalitynet.org/

Independent (2021) TRAVEL PREDICTED TO BE 30% DOWN IN 2022, SAYS ECONOMIST INTELLIGENCE UNIT, https://www.independent.co.uk/travel/news-and-advice/travel-industry-covid-2022-economist-b1959330.html

Jones, P., & Comfort, D. (2020).The COVID-19 crisis, tourism and sustainable development. Athens Journal of Tourism7(2), 75-86.DOI: 10.30958/ajt/v7i2

Kanda, W., &Kivimaa, P. (2020). What opportunities could the COVID-19 outbreak offer for sustainability transitions research on electricity and mobility?.Energy Research & Social Science, 68, 101666. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erss.2020.101666

Nhamo, G., Dube, K., &Chikodzi, D. (2020).Global Tourism Value Chains, Sustainable Development Goals and COVID-19.In Counting the Cost of COVID-19 on the Global Tourism Industry (pp. 27-51).Springer, Cham. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-56231-1_2

Nicola, M., Alsafi, Z., Sohrabi, C., Kerwan, A., Al-Jabir, A., Iosifidis, C., …& Agha, R. (2020). The socio-economic implications of the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19): A review. International journal of surgery, 78, 185-193. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsu.2020.04.018

Ntounis, N., Parker, C., Skinner, H., Steadman, C., &Warnaby, G. (2021). Tourism and Hospitality industry resilience during the Covid-19 pandemic: Evidence from England. Current Issues in Tourism, 1-14. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2021.1883556

OCED (2021) Rebuilding tourism for the future: COVID-19 policy responses and recovery, https://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/policy-responses/rebuilding-tourism-for-the-future-covid-19-policy-responses-and-recovery-bced9859/

OCED (2021) Tourism Policy Responses to the coronavirus (COVID-19), https://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/policy-responses/tourism-policy-responses-to-the-coronavirus-covid-19-6466aa20/

Ocheni, S. I., Agba, A. O., Agba, M. S., &Eteng, F. O. (2020). Covid-19 and the tourism industry: Critical overview, lessons and policy options. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 9(6), 114-114. DOI: https://doi.org/10.36941/ajis-2020-0116

Office for National Statistics (2021).Coronavirus and the impact on the UK travel and tourism industry.https://www.ons.gov.uk/businessindustryandtrade/tourismindustry/articles/coronavirusandtheimpactontheuktravelandtourismindustry/2021-02-15

Rahman, M. K., Gazi, M. A. I., Bhuiyan, M. A., &Rahaman, M. A. (2021).Effect of Covid-19 pandemic on tourist travel risk and management perceptions.Plos one, 16(9), e0256486. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0256486

Robina-Ramírez, R., Sánchez, M. S. O., Jiménez-Naranjo, H. V., & Castro-Serrano, J. (2021). Tourism governance during the COVID-19 pandemic crisis: A proposal for a sustainable model to restore the tourism industry. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 1-22. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-021-01707-3

Saunders, M., Lewis, P. H. I. L. I. P., &Thornhill, A. D. R. I. A. N. (2007).Research methods. Business Students 4th edition Pearson Education Limited, England.https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Mark-Saunders-10/publication/330760964_Research_Methods_for_Business_Students_Chapter_4_Understanding_research_philosophy_and_approaches_to_theory_development/links/5c53056f299bf12be3f0e2cf/Research-Methods-for-Business-Students-Chapter-4-Understanding-research-philosophy-and-approaches-to-theory-development.pdf

Sharma, G. D., Thomas, A., & Paul, J. (2021).Reviving tourism industry post-COVID-19: A resilience-based framework. Tourism management perspectives37, 100786. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2020.100786

Sigala, M. (2020). Tourism and COVID-19: Impacts and implications for advancing and resetting industry and research. Journal of business research117, 312-321.doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2020.06.015

Škare, M., Soriano, D. R., &Porada-Rochoń, M. (2021).Impact of COVID-19 on the travel and tourism industry.Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 163, 120469.Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2020.120469

Soliku, O., Kyiire, B., Mahama, A., &Kubio, C. (2021). Tourism amid COVID-19 pandemic: impacts and implications for building resilience in the eco-tourism sector in Ghana’s Savannah region. Heliyon7(9), e07892. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e07892

Stankov, U., Filimonau, V., &Vujičić, M. D. (2020). A mindful shift: an opportunity for mindfulness-driven tourism in a post-pandemic world. Tourism Geographies, 22(3), 703-712. DOI: 10.1080/14616688.2020.1768432

Statista (2021) Coronavirus: impact on the tourism industry worldwide – statistics & facts, https://www.statista.com/topics/6224/covid-19-impact-on-the-tourism-industry/#dossierKeyfigures

Statista (2021) Monthly output growth of travel agencies, tour operators, and other reservation services in the United Kingdom (UK) from January 2019 to July 2021, https://www.statista.com/statistics/1225135/travel-agencies-and-tour-operators-monthly-output-growth-united-kingdom/

Statista (2021) Revenue growth of the travel and tourism market in the United Kingdom (UK) from 2018 to 2023, by segment, https://www.statista.com/forecasts/1119142/travel-and-tourism-revenue-growth-forecast-uk-by-segment

Statista (2021) Total contribution of travel and tourism to GDP in the United Kingdom (UK) from 2012 to 2020, https://www.statista.com/statistics/598093/travel-and-tourism-gdp-total-contribution-united-kingdom-uk/

Statista (2021) Travel and tourism in the United Kingdom – statistics & facts, https://www.statista.com/topics/3269/travel-and-tourism-in-the-united-kingdom-uk/#dossierKeyfigures

The Gardian (2021) UK travel firms call for state help after Omicron hits turnover, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/dec/07/uk-travel-firms-call-for-state-help-after-omicron-hits-turnover

Uğur, N. G., &Akbıyık, A. (2020). Impacts of COVID-19 on global tourism industry: A cross-regional comparison. Tourism Management Perspectives, 36, 100744.doi: 10.1016/j.tmp.2020.100744

Visitbritain (2021) 2022 tourism forecast, https://www.visitbritain.org/2022-tourism-forecast

Wachyuni, S. S., &Kusumaningrum, D. A. (2020). The effect of COVID-19 pandemic: How are the future tourist behavior?. Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, 67-76. DOI:10.9734/JESBS/2020/v33i430219

World Travel & Tourism Council (2021) TRAVEL & TOURISM GLOBAL ECONOMIC IMPACT & TRENDS 2019, https://ambassade-ethiopie.fr/onewebmedia/Tourism-WTTC-Global-Economic-Impact-Trends-2019.pdf

World Travel and Tourism Council (2021) Economic Impact Reports, https://wttc.org/Research/Economic-Impact

Appendix 1: Ethics Form

STUDENT (UGT/PGT) PROJECT/DISSERTATION

RESEARCH ETHICAL REVIEW FORM (E0)

APPLICABLE TO ALL UNDERGRADUATE AND TAUGHT POSTGRADUATE PROGRAMMES

Please complete and return to your Project / Dissertation Supervisor for approval.

SECTION A: APPLICANT(S) DETAILS

Before completing this section students should consult their Course/Module handbook alongside appropriate ethical guidelines.  The student’s supervisor is responsible for advising the student on appropriate professional judgement in this review.

Student name KanikaKhurana
Student number U2077947
Course the student is registered to MSc  Management
Names of Supervisor OluseyiAju
Title of research/project A review of current studies on the impact of Covid- 19 pandemic on the travel and tourism industry
Brief overview of how the data will be collected Systematic literature will be used to do analysis and conclusion. The information will be collected from online database consisting of EBSCOhost, Science direct, Springer, Google scholar
Project start date  25 June 2021

SECTION B – STATEMENT BY APPLICANT

I, as the student undertaking this research, confirm that my proposed project does not involve: •     direct contact with human/animal participants •     access to identifiable personal data for living individuals not already in the public domain •     increased danger of physical or psychological harm for researcher(s) or subject(s) •     research into potentially sensitive areas •     joint responsibility for the project with researchers external to the University. this research will conform to the principles outlined in the University of Huddersfield and Huddersfield Business School research procedures, the information I have given in this form on ethical issues is correct.   Student’s (i.e. applicant) Signature (Electronic is acceptable): KanikaKhurana  Date: 19/11/2021   Affirmation by Supervisor (where applicable) In signing this Declaration I confirm that I have reviewed the proposed project and am satisfied that that it does not involve any specific ethics risk as defined by the School policy.   Main supervisor’s signature (Electronic is acceptable): Date: 19-11-2021  

References

Aminudin, N., Hassan, N. A., Shaukani, N. F. A., & Jamal, S. A. (2020) Customer Satisfaction towards Hotel Industry in Malaysia: A Systematic Review of Pre-Covid19 Era. DOI: 10.24191/ij.v8i0.105

BBC (2021) Air travel yet to meaningfully restart, says UK industry, https://www.bbc.com/news/business-57967907

BBC (2021) Covid: New Omicron travel rules come into force, https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-59558131

BBC (2021) UK removes all 11 countries from red list, https://www.bbc.com/news/business-59653236

Bucsky, P. (2020). Modal share changes due to COVID-19: The case of Budapest. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, 8, 100141.

Condorferries (2021).UK TOURISM Statistics 2020-2021, https://www.condorferries.co.uk/uk-tourism-statistics

Department for Digital, Culture, Media & Sport (2021) The Tourism Recovery Plan, https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/992974/Tourism_Recovery_Plan__Web_Accessible_.pdf

Dias, Á.,Patuleia, M., Silva, R., Estêvão, J., & González-Rodríguez, M. R. (2021). Post-pandemic recovery strategies: revitalizing lifestyle entrepreneurship. Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events, 1-18. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/19407963.2021.1892124

Fraserofallander (2021) Covid-19 impact on the Tourism and Hospitality Sector, an insight from the latest Economic Commentary, https:// fraserofallander.org/covid-19-impact-on-the-tourism-and-hospitality-sector-an-insight-from-the-latest-economic-commentary/

Gallego, I., & Font, X. (2021). Changes in air passenger demand as a result of the COVID-19 crisis: Using Big Data to inform tourism policy. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 29(9), 1470-1489. DOI: 10.1080/09669582.2020.1773476

Gössling, S., Scott, D., & Hall, C. M. (2020). Pandemics, tourism and global change: a rapid assessment of COVID-19. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 29(1), 1-20. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2020.1758708

Gov. UK (2021) New plan to drive rapid recovery of tourism sector, https://www.gov.uk/government/news/new-plan-to-drive-rapid-recovery-of-tourism-sector

Hospitalitynet (2021) UK Travel & Tourism sector may only recover by a third this year, https://www.hospitalitynet.org/

Independent (2021) TRAVEL PREDICTED TO BE 30% DOWN IN 2022, SAYS ECONOMIST INTELLIGENCE UNIT, https://www.independent.co.uk/travel/news-and-advice/travel-industry-covid-2022-economist-b1959330.html

Jones, P., & Comfort, D. (2020).The COVID-19 crisis, tourism and sustainable development. Athens Journal of Tourism7(2), 75-86.DOI: 10.30958/ajt/v7i2

Kanda, W., &Kivimaa, P. (2020). What opportunities could the COVID-19 outbreak offer for sustainability transitions research on electricity and mobility?.Energy Research & Social Science, 68, 101666. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erss.2020.101666

Nhamo, G., Dube, K., &Chikodzi, D. (2020).Global Tourism Value Chains, Sustainable Development Goals and COVID-19.In Counting the Cost of COVID-19 on the Global Tourism Industry (pp. 27-51).Springer, Cham. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-56231-1_2

Nicola, M., Alsafi, Z., Sohrabi, C., Kerwan, A., Al-Jabir, A., Iosifidis, C., …& Agha, R. (2020). The socio-economic implications of the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19): A review. International journal of surgery, 78, 185-193. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsu.2020.04.018

Ntounis, N., Parker, C., Skinner, H., Steadman, C., &Warnaby, G. (2021). Tourism and Hospitality industry resilience during the Covid-19 pandemic: Evidence from England. Current Issues in Tourism, 1-14. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2021.1883556

OCED (2021) Rebuilding tourism for the future: COVID-19 policy responses and recovery, https://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/policy-responses/rebuilding-tourism-for-the-future-covid-19-policy-responses-and-recovery-bced9859/

OCED (2021) Tourism Policy Responses to the coronavirus (COVID-19), https://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/policy-responses/tourism-policy-responses-to-the-coronavirus-covid-19-6466aa20/

Ocheni, S. I., Agba, A. O., Agba, M. S., &Eteng, F. O. (2020). Covid-19 and the tourism industry: Critical overview, lessons and policy options. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 9(6), 114-114. DOI: https://doi.org/10.36941/ajis-2020-0116

Office for National Statistics (2021).Coronavirus and the impact on the UK travel and tourism industry.https://www.ons.gov.uk/businessindustryandtrade/tourismindustry/articles/coronavirusandtheimpactontheuktravelandtourismindustry/2021-02-15

Rahman, M. K., Gazi, M. A. I., Bhuiyan, M. A., &Rahaman, M. A. (2021).Effect of Covid-19 pandemic on tourist travel risk and management perceptions.Plos one, 16(9), e0256486. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0256486

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Appendix 1: Ethics Form

STUDENT (UGT/PGT) PROJECT/DISSERTATION

RESEARCH ETHICAL REVIEW FORM (E0)

APPLICABLE TO ALL UNDERGRADUATE AND TAUGHT POSTGRADUATE PROGRAMMES

Please complete and return to your Project / Dissertation Supervisor for approval.

SECTION A: APPLICANT(S) DETAILS

Before completing this section students should consult their Course/Module handbook alongside appropriate ethical guidelines.  The student’s supervisor is responsible for advising the student on appropriate professional judgement in this review.

Student name KanikaKhurana
Student number U2077947
Course the student is registered to MSc  Management
Names of Supervisor OluseyiAju
Title of research/project A review of current studies on the impact of Covid- 19 pandemic on the travel and tourism industry
Brief overview of how the data will be collected Systematic literature will be used to do analysis and conclusion. The information will be collected from online database consisting of EBSCOhost, Science direct, Springer, Google scholar
Project start date  25 June 2021

SECTION B – STATEMENT BY APPLICANT

Appendix 1: Ethics Form

STUDENT (UGT/PGT) PROJECT/DISSERTATION

RESEARCH ETHICAL REVIEW FORM (E0)

APPLICABLE TO ALL UNDERGRADUATE AND TAUGHT POSTGRADUATE PROGRAMMES

Please complete and return to your Project / Dissertation Supervisor for approval.

SECTION A: APPLICANT(S) DETAILS

Before completing this section students should consult their Course/Module handbook alongside appropriate ethical guidelines.  The student’s supervisor is responsible for advising the student on appropriate professional judgement in this review.

Student name KanikaKhurana
Student number U2077947
Course the student is registered to MSc  Management
Names of Supervisor OluseyiAju
Title of research/project A review of current studies on the impact of Covid- 19 pandemic on the travel and tourism industry
Brief overview of how the data will be collected Systematic literature will be used to do analysis and conclusion. The information will be collected from online database consisting of EBSCOhost, Science direct, Springer, Google scholar
Project start date  25 June 2021

SECTION B – STATEMENT BY APPLICANT

I, as the student undertaking this research, confirm that my proposed project does not involve: •     direct contact with human/animal participants •     access to identifiable personal data for living individuals not already in the public domain •     increased danger of physical or psychological harm for researcher(s) or subject(s) •     research into potentially sensitive areas •     joint responsibility for the project with researchers external to the University. this research will conform to the principles outlined in the University of Huddersfield and Huddersfield Business School research procedures, the information I have given in this form on ethical issues is correct.   Student’s (i.e. applicant) Signature (Electronic is acceptable): KanikaKhurana  Date: 19/11/2021   Affirmation by Supervisor (where applicable) In signing this Declaration I confirm that I have reviewed the proposed project and am satisfied that that it does not involve any specific ethics risk as defined by the School policy.   Main supervisor’s signature (Electronic is acceptable): Date: 19-11-2021
British Dissertation Help (October 2, 2022) Individual Research Project . Retrieved from https://www.britishdissertationhelp.com/individual-research-project/.
"Individual Research Project ." British Dissertation Help - October 2, 2022, https://www.britishdissertationhelp.com/individual-research-project/
British Dissertation Help March 14, 2022 Individual Research Project ., viewed October 2, 2022,<https://www.britishdissertationhelp.com/individual-research-project/>
British Dissertation Help - Individual Research Project . [Internet]. [Accessed October 2, 2022]. Available from: https://www.britishdissertationhelp.com/individual-research-project/
"Individual Research Project ." British Dissertation Help - Accessed October 2, 2022. https://www.britishdissertationhelp.com/individual-research-project/
"Individual Research Project ." British Dissertation Help [Online]. Available: https://www.britishdissertationhelp.com/individual-research-project/. [Accessed: October 2, 2022]