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Programmatic Advertising and Its Boundaries on Sme’s


First and Foremost, I would like to thank my professor for providing me an opportunity to complete the important and constructive research paper. While doing the research for the paper I have received numerous help from our college library, with the help of our department head sir, who provided me the special pass to access a large section of literature works. I therefore would like to thank Head of the Department sir as well. I also received help from my seniors and classmates regarding completion of my research work. I thank you all.


The growth of Programmatic marketing is actively working towards ensuring higher degree of business developmental opportunities to the companies and maintains the flow of business competitiveness. It is also focusing towards creating the proper ranges of values for the development and the enhancement of marketers by strategically focusing towards targeting advertisements for the maximum impacts. This paper has also focused towards researching on programmatic advertisement for maintaining towards focusing on development of business performance towards ensuing financial profitabilities and maintenance using artificial intelligence for automations for buying the advertisements for the digital advertisements.

Table of Contents

1.0. Chapter 1: Introduction. 8

1.1   Introduction. 8

1.2   Research background. 8

1.3   Research rationale. 9

1.4   Research aim.. 10

1.5   Research Objective. 10

1.6   Research Questions. 10

1.7   Research problem.. 11

1.8 Research significance. 11

1.9   Research structure. 12

1.10 Summary. 13

2.0 Chapter 2: Literature review.. 14

2.1 Introduction. 14

2.2 Conceptual framework. 14

2.3 Concept of Independent variable and dependent variable. 15

2.4 Theories and models. 15

2.5 Empirical studies. 16

2.6 Literature gaps. 28

2.7 Summary. 28

3.0 Chapter 3: Research Methodology. 30

3.1 Introduction. 30

3.2 Research Onion. 30

3.3 Research Philosophy. 31

3.4 Research Approach. 32

3.5 Research Design. 34

3.6 Research Strategy. 34

3.7 Research Method. 35

3.8 Data Collection Method. 35

3.9 Data Analysis Method. 36

3.10 Research Ethics. 37

3.11 Research Limitations. 38

3.12 Conclusion. 39

3.13 Research Timeline. 39

Chapter 4: Findings, Discussion and Analysis. 42

4.1 Findings. 42

4.1.1 Case Study. 42

Implementation of AIDA Model in SMEs. 44

Real Time Bidding System in SMEs. 46

Selection of Demand Side Platform for Programmatic Advertising in SMEs. 47

Programmatic Advertising and Consumer Behaviour for SMEs. 49

Changing Dynamics of Programmatic Advertisements. 50

4.2 Analysis. 54

4.3. Discussion. 55

4.4 Summary. 61

Chapter 5: Conclusion. 63

5.1. Introduction. 63

5.2. Linking with Objectives. 63

5.3. Recommendations. 65

Recommendation 1: The organizations are required to enhance the efficiency of the programmatic advertising process by 15% in 3 years. 65

Recommendation 2: The companies must also need to provide better quality products and the services to the customers in different regions. 66

5.4. Conclusion. 66

5.5. Future research scopes. 67

Reference List 68

Bibliography. 77

Appendices. 79

Appendix 1: Global Programmatic Advertisement Spending. 79

Appendix 2: The Dominance of Google and Facebook. 80

List of Figures

Figure 1.1: Research Structure. 8

Figure 3.1: Research Onion. 11

Figure 3.2: Research Philosophy. 12

Figure 3.3: Research Approach. 14

Figure 4.1: Time Savings with programmatic advertising. 31

Figure 4.2: Global Programmatic advertising platform market values. 32

Figure 4.3: Growth of Programmatic Advertising and its market size during 2017-2022. 33

Figure 4.4: The Life of a Programmatic RTB Ad Impression. 34

Figure 4.5: 28-day click or 1-day view.. 35

Figure 4.6: Reach. 36

List of Tables

Table 3.1: Research Timeline. 22

Table 5.1: Recommendation 1. 40

Table 5.2: Recommendation 2. 41

1.0. Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1   Introduction

Programming buying of ad primarily defines the software utilization to buy digital advertising, compared to traditional procedures. Moreover, programmatic burying demarcates online advertising which is booked, aggregated, optimized and analyzed through demand software. Such DSPs utilize technology for automating methods and they in turn apply mathematics for improving the outcomes. Programmatic ads remain pre-determined algos which can be programmed to purchase ads for advertiser. Segmenting audiences are done through targeting tactics by data such that advertisers pa only for delivered ads. Because of its automated process, programmatic buying guarantees efficacy and speed which is not comparable to traditional media purchasing. Programming advertising proves to be effective for starters as one might enjoy advantages of real-time bidding of ad.


1.2   Research background

The background of this research is about understanding programmatic advertising and its role. It also focuses on the cons and pros along with the effect which might put on SMEs. In the words of White and Samuel (2019), programmatic advertising enables firms for selling ads across larger volume. With transformations in customer psychology and preferences, techniques of marketing have evolved over times. A crucial portion of economic building originates from emerging markets SMEs. The large portion of such development remain associated toward marketing budgets. Besides this, internet democratises advertising through offering the scope for SME’s. The efficacy and measurability of online ad has created a significant means for SMEs for generating sales. The various kinds of online ad are open, that indulges paid search, organic search or premium advertising display. With SEO becoming much competitive, CPC’s tend to be much expensive. Programmatic advertising serves SME to target the specific audience. In this ad form, publisher displays ad to end user through demarcating them with significant ads according to the budget of advertiser. In the words of AlQershi (2021), the budget and campaigns might become tweaked in purchasing programmatically. Concern to this, SME’s need to know the variou models of transaction accessible in PA. They should understand about the process that is much appropriate for models of business. Programmatic direct and private marketplaces might indulge complex processes. SME advertisers are allowed to pre-segment audience data throughout complete inventory. Self-serve DSPs needs offering features and limited experience for making management easy. The rate of adoption for SMEs advertising remain less with respect to media agencies and large brands, however it shouldn’t become. Education and training is equally significant which can generate important developments in the performance of campaign. SME’s alway focus on learning latest processes and they are open toward latest scopes for growth. As their decision-building methods are flexible and faster, this has become primitive element of marketing approach. Programmatic ad can be demonstrated as an accessory that might be utilised for chanelling sellers and buyers through automation.

In the view of Ghobakhloo and Ching (2019), the digital advertising might enhance the productivity through ensuring consumers to reach at right time and place. The system tends to develop where visible stocks and premium stocks due to enhancing accessibility by marketplace deals. The primary success for digital automation originates from several action centres taken following the conversion rates. Generated data has enabled the agencies of ad for connecting to activities of promotion.

1.3   Research rationale 

 The issue is that firms often struggle through inconsistent metrics and measurement in programmatic ads. Moreover, performance optimization remain threatening across every market domains, besides, several firms face shortage in analytical skills as a primary challenge. 

In the words of Bolton et al. (2016), programmatic advertising is an issue particularly due to lack of skills and knowledge. Marketers are often ill-prepared to execute programmatic advertisements. Viewability remain a leading problem in facebook campaigning of marketing ads. However, there are several reasons for poor viewability of ad. These indulge certain non-human traffic, impression provided through a bot. The reasons for low viewability of digital ad demarcates wide complex problems, maximum of these remain fixed through joint effort.  Programmatic advertising remain on scene through empowering agencies and brands for purchasing ads without mediation.

Currently, ad fraud remain inexclusive to programmatic ad, however, it proves to be an issue throughout online advertising. In the words of Busch (2016), the entire sector of online marketing is depended on creating impressions. With times, the expense over inventory quality is enhancing. Several firms works for ensuring that ad is revealed to much interested and relevant audience.

There needs to ensure the brand reputation and safety management. The company needs to understand consumer strategy to bid over prolific ad spaces. As marketer, the job lies upon converting campaigns and delivering compelled aims. The marker needs to be clear regarding the target, if it is driving conversions or brand awareness. Facebook Advertising remain a significant form of Mobile (Programmatic) advertising. This advertising form is largely efficient which serves in delivering striking outcomes. The evolution of PA, proofed through profusion and adoption demonstrates its viability as the research subject. SMEs in particular remain at early phase for adoption of digital channels. Company size puts a large effect over adoption; however, micro companies remain the slowest adopters. In the words of Alaimo and Kalliniko (2018), big businesses likely to have needed knowledge and resources for adopting latest digital tools and channels. Resources remain a dominant factor which explains decision making under small businesses. In reality, technologfical knowledge of owner remain a significant attribute. PA has provided adertisers good return upon the advertising revenue. PA is allowing brands ibn providing clear and better insights into the requisites of audience. The system of automation advertising indulges variable applications. The DMPs creates the consumer profile in assessing the habits and tastes. PA automation has credibility that can result to reduce cost. Employees can take proper judgements in this process, that results in perfect advertising placements.  


1.4   Research aim

The aim of this research is to identify the efficacies of Programmatic Advertising along with its boundaries.

1.5   Research Objective

The objectives of this research are:

1) To analyse the need of programmatic advertisement on Cellys Cardiff and Cellys Swansea

2) To develop the factors of programmatic advertisement that are influencing Cellys Cardiff and Cellys Swansea and their business operations

 3) To analyse the effectiveness of facebook programmatic advertisement on the coampnies.

4) To analyse the programmatic advertising techniques of both these companies

5) To provide recommendations for overall development of Cellys Cardiff and Cellys Swansea using Programmatic Advertisement procedures

1.6   Research Questions

Q1) What is need of programmatic advertisement on Cellys cardiff and Cellys Swansea?

Q2) What factors of programmatic advertisement influences the business operations of Cellys Cardiff and Cellys Swansea? 

Q3) What is the effectiveness of facebook PA techniques for both the firms

Q4) What are the programmatic advertising techniques of both these firms

Q5) What are the suggestions for overall development of Cellys Cardiff and Cellys Swansea using Programmatic Advertisement procedures?

1.7   Research problem 

It is assessed that switching to current era makes people worrying about the future. Machine learning and AI might be witnessed as a significant milestone and advancement for technological usage. Irrespective of the achievements and advancements, there remain important concerns which needs to be identified. In the words of Shehu et al. (2021), such concerns might be of transparency and privacy of collected data, the precision of advertisements and targeted marketing towards customers. Data set indulge customer’s biometric data, customer’s personal identifier, geolocation, psychometric data, internet-browsing history. These all are primary information which is crucial for applications of AI in advertising method, this remain primarily viable for customer insights and brand messages. AI is developed through humans, which signifies that it might remain susceptible toward biasness. The connection among customer attitudes and frequency remain a significant aspect for past research. Repeated ad exposure tends to develop recognition feeling, that makes ad much familiar to customers. The trade-off among invasiveness feelings and ad significance are presently not enough researched.

1.8 Research significance

Many people focus on accessing Internet for pleasure or work. They remain exposed toward certain tactics of marketing. The study’s purpose lies on expanding the research on AI’s influence in context of advertising and marketing upon customers. Customers and ad agencies not uses programmed system. Programmed advertising might remain a connectivity source for developing market in world media sector. In the words of Fernandez-Tapia (2019), the implication and execution of such technology might not be effective since less research is conducted for evaluating the effects of digital media. Digitization of purchase behavior remain a progress which SMEs need to follow for increasing their marketing competence. Firms which have made essential investments in digital marketing have been capable of taking benefit of such accessories. It illustrates that attaining digital market needs investing resources, however most significantly needs time investment. Companies also require to assess the new environment prior to utilising tools. Concern to significance of social platform use, the customers have less focus in developing social bondings with brands. 

However, social media consists of participation, sharing and listening. Firms need to coordinate presence in the social media. SMEs are required to become particularly consumer centric. In the view opf Sürücü (2019), the application of social platform in SMEs remain challenging since certain SMEs in maximum cases are incapable to develop internesting content. The significance of this research is to obtain a deeper evaluation of the exposure for programmatic advertisement. With progresses, the storage of data has become affordable and it is developing daily. The databases for consumers are getting mulyidimensional, richer and layered. Integration of technology and data management in trading method allow increased targeting and larger efficacy.

Programmatic advertising has capability to handle and process consumer data. The approaches and models which underlies programmatic purchasing is depended on media planning. Digital development has transformed the globe with latest approaches and strategiwes. The utilisation of social and digital media remain a significant aspect of person’s everyday lives. Such considerable developments have hugely influenced the media-buying and advertising ecosystem. Programmatic advertising has credibility to manage and process consumer data, which remain economic asset. Programmatic ad demonstrates the quick evolution of buying and online ad through utilising technologies of computing. Display ad remain a kind of online advertising, in banner ads shape which deliver market messages to visitors of site. Programmatic ad implicates real-time information, real-time trading along with real-time development. It generates the possibility of trading each impression of ad very individually.     

1.9   Research structure 

Figure 1.1: Research Structure

(Source: Self-Created)

1.10 Summary

The digital change has hugely influenced the media-purchase ecosystem and advertising. Moreover, the environment is evolving constantly because of adaptation to social and technological transformations. Because of emergence of market and digital improvements, websites publishing ads has enhanced significantly. AI need to be explained in terms of customer service-specific for demonstrating real scenarios of service. The face of environmental communication has gradually developed to an interactive one. The sector of communicable is capable of reshaping itself due to AI. Through the aid of AI, it remain possible to dig on several facets of advertising method. In the words of Kumar (2017), these might involve research and market analysis, copyrights and design, feedback and performance assignments along with buying and media planning. Programmatic ad has retained efficacy in context of delivery and message creation. While speaking about AI’s utilisation, AI technologies are used by marketers for effectively monitoring social media. Image analysis remain applicable for marketers in analysing brands which remain active upon social media. Marketers are completely optimising image, sentimental, audience analyses with AI tools. It serves to address the branded content that received maximum customer engagement via social media. Ad server is primarily run through third party that delivers and tracks online advertisement. In the words of Balocco and Li (2019), advertisers utilise DSP for purchasing inventory and publishers utilise SSP for selling inventory. It eliminates the requirement for sales force. Certain DSPs remain emphasised on channels indulging video or mobile. The technique of programmatic buying is utilised in Facebook and social media in specific. Through having greater usage, reach, automation and new formats, facebook remain a prolific supplier of SM advertising.      

2.0 Chapter 2: Literature review

2.1 Introduction

Programmatic advertising remains an automated method which delivers ads to the users depending on the interests. Programmatic illustrates a procedure which is associating a program or utilising a specific method. There are factors which highlights the influences of programmatic advertisement on SME’s business. In the words of Balocco and Li (2019), there has been demonstration on the techniques of advertising and the organization’s measures towards implementing the same. There is clear description about the positive effects of programmatic advertising and the effective improvements which the organization requires in this concern.    

2.2 Conceptual framework

Figure 1: Research framework

(Source: Self-created)

2.3 Concept of Independent variable and dependent variable

In this research, programmatic advertising is taken as the independent variable.  

2.4 Theories and models

The model for hierarchy-of-effects demonstrates that impacts of advertising occur over time period. In the words of Balocco and Li (2019), researchers also postulated that the instant influence of advertising remain primarily low. Advertising might not result to the instant borrowing of product, however, the sequential effect cts might prevail for individual phase. Significant online ad management can develop the cognitive constituent of customer behaviour. 

Theory for reasoned Action

Fishbein and Ajben (1980) have developed the theory for reasoned action. As per this theory, behavioural attitudes remain a significant parameter responsible for behavioural intention. Moreover, customer attitude towards advertisement influences attention, customer exposure and response to personal advertisement by various affective and cognitive methods. In the research of CB, brand attitude, Pi and advertisement attitudes remain commonly utilized constructs to predict the marketing communications efficacy on several media.

Several CB theories posist that there remain an association between various CB stages and advertisement. In the words of Balocco and Li (2019), advertisements of TV affect INT, attention and desire. The impacts of radio ads remain much less on transforming customers’ behaviour and attitude. The researcher attempts toward exploring several advertising media influencing CB across each phase.

The model of decision-making remain much complicated and it primarily needs several steps.

Maximum studies have considered AIDCA, Steiner model and AIDA as dependent variable. AIDCA model is examined from current perspective of advertising. It illustrated that model of AIDCA is applicable for mapping the efficacies of media ads on CB. The model of Steiner and lavidge was utilised for measuring the influences of MA on several consumer behaviour stages like INT, AWR, CON, PPUR and PUR. 

2.5 Empirical studies

Several digital marketing elements are known to operate through the aid of digital accessories. These indulge email marketing, online advertising, text messaging, social media, SEO, affiliate marketing and PPC. the advantages and benefits indulge larger consumers engagement, clear information availability, 24/7 availability of online shopping and more. In the words of Balocco and Li (2019), several reviews on services and products through customers is found to be impactful upon revenue growth and business performance. Systems and IB technologies are accounted as a necessary and a significant force which positively influences SME sector. Utilisation of IT based equipment and systems might develop performance in a significant fashion. In the words of Balocco and Li (2019), it has served in engaging consumers because of direct provision and quick approach of relevant information. Moreover, online feedback help managers in assessing the opinion, satisfaction and attitude level of consumers. €studies have revealed that when managers value and consider feedback, they have the chance to influence customer’s perception and quality. Companies operate in particular business environments remain affected through external powers that indulge government authorities, competitors and phenomenon of globalisation.

RTB remain the bidding method that allows buying, serving and automatic selling of advertisements. On generating a latest ad space, such automated method enable s ads to bid over per-impression basis. This method ensures that ads will target users across demographic, behavioural and psychographic levels. For ensuring this targeting form, real-time bidding associates certain intermediary attributes. Through combining such attributes, rhe advertisers tend to develop the demand aspect of RTB method. In the words of Balocco and Li (2019), their objective lies on promoting the product online or brand image. Without processing and collection of data, the behaviour-centric ads might not become effective. Internet remain a significant tool for daily tasks as the data collection have become easier. Surfing behaviour might be traced through online marketers. It can further be utilised for aiming individualised ads to users. AI remain a significant element to be utilised through managers and businesses for keeping up with successful and competition. In the words of Tabrani et al. (2018), through implementing AI, the transformations in management styles and internal systems are not natural and smooth. It often produce produce serious issues and problems for the firm along with its consumers interaction. Technological implication in certain business forms has generated discussion on people’s willingness for accepting such technological trends.           

Developing the Customers trust

Trust is considered the primitive aspect of every human associations, that indulges family life, romantic partnerships, politics, business operations along with medical practices. Moreover, trust signifies a set of behavioural threads that indulges acting in ways which depend on other. Without trust, not a single business can achieve success in long run. In the words of Balocco and Li (2019), ignoring the consumer feedback might remain detrimental to success of the concerned business. The technology of AI has been used for creating advertising messages. It is noted that various factors influence customers toward appreciating the advertisements created by AI. Developing trust might be effective factors that ensures the security of business and containing a user-friendly professional website. Marketers primarily invest in certain media platforms for influencing customer behavior. Digitalization has resulted to transformations in customers’ media habits. Therefore, a dip assessment of ads on various media platforms require to be developed. It emphasizes on the impacts of radio, television (TV), magazines, AWR, newspapers, conviction, purchase, interest and PPUR attitude of customers. The influence of internet and TV for developing INT, newspapers and AWR between the customers is evident statistically. Advertising managers might take cue and increase the advertisements objectivity through interesting in suitable media. This research proves significant since it is necessary to priorities the utilization of media platforms remain a conundrum. The advertising expense of individual media remain large, and any unsuitable media strategies might become an expensive decision. In the words of Alaimo, Kallinikos and Sessa-Sforza (2017), internet advertising remain the present trend for almost every marketers. Newspaper advertisements perform a viable role in developing brand and this in turn, affects purchase decision. Advertisements for magazine are considered more effective as compared to TV. The interferences above depict that media influence consumer behaviour upon certain purchase levels. Effective research requires to be conducted for measuring the influences of PA upon several CB stages. It facilitates advertisers in taking the right decision of media mix. Tracking enables the online advertisers in reaching the target audience. The advertiser needs to announce about the engagement of social media. Advertisement remain an essential aspect in the competition-centric market. There needs to evaluate on how customer behaviour is influenced by advertisements. This is crucial for creating a perfect ad which can address the individual factor. In SMEs, programmatic CRM enables in communicating and identifying directly with consumers. Programmatic In the words of Alaimo, Kallinikos and Sessa-Sforza (2017), CRM generates layering tactic for reaching the consumers with personalized experience. With an emphasis  on meeting the wants and requirements of their consumers, brands can take large stride  in regard to integrate their consumer and advertising. Strategies might be driven and persoanlised through an individual’s association with brand for offe ring people with maximum value. Personalisation and consumer privacy moves hand-in-hand, thus leveraging the privacy promise for delivering personalisation.

In personalisation world, customisation in PA has become commonplace. The marketing group can enhance ad significance and develop performance through personalised messaging. Moreover, it demands progrssive analytical capabilities. Customisation also leverages huge data volumes. The removal of human intervention in ad purchasing method makes it cheaper and faster. Provided the scarcity of man intervention, this is not totally free of any risks. Markerers need to focus on e-commerce and online presence. 

Automation system of advertising indulges various applications. DMPS generates the profile of consumers in assessing the habits and tastes. They utilise variable data for GPS location tracking, geographical conditions and current activity. PA automation has credibilities that might result to maximisation of cost. It serves employees to take proper judgements in the method, which leads to proper placements of advertising. Alaimo, Kallinikos and Sessa-Sforza (2017), digital promotion remain a course and sketch for achieving embarking targets of advertisement. There remain a increased significance for evaluating the success under a dynamic landscape. Programmatic advertising tools are available to evaluate success via several metrics which business owners might generate. Insights and data provides viable scope to build inferences through marketers. SMEs should constantly learn on developing the campaigns. Tracking visitors and online behaviour remain easier through digital world since marketers focus on understanding where visitors originate from. In the words of Tabrani et al. (2018), digital technologies have the capability to cope every aspects of marketing communications and traditional media. This covers marketing mix in turn. Digital promotions prove to be specific and is major component of marketing mix. Moreover, digital marketing indulges utilising digital media in performing the market practices. The digital marketing forms indulge mobile marketing, emails, social media, SEO, online advertising, viral marketing and PPC. Email marketing remain a significant digital marketing procedure which includes targeted or personalised messages to particular people at right moment. With emails, businesses can deliver emails for facilitating the user’s necessities. Programmatic advertising thereby develops the association between mobile phones and customers, the relationship of customer brand and more.

Programmatic advertising remains a rapidly growing and nascent IT phenomenon which influences the behaviour of customers. Current, technology of digital progress has developed severe effects upon the efficacy, effective and enhanced performance of firms with developed information. Digital advertising has been much significant tool that generates efficient results compared to manual process. Programmatic advertising might be demonstrated as a tool that is utilised for channelling sellers and buyers via automation. The induction of smart technological device has transformed the changing perceptions of people through web online. Not every programmatic advertising is known to utilise RTB. Certain technology-driven or programmatic ad platforms have led publishers to sell inventory. Publishers, marketers and agencies all utilise DMPs. Agencies focus on utilising technology for analysing and collecting the data ensemble from client campaigns. In the words of Balocco and Li (2019), programmatic advertising of TV signifies the data-centric automation for audience generic transactions. Marketers primarily depend on show ratings for determining effective audiences for the advertisements. Marketers utilise data of audience to pipe ad to the optimal places. Programmatic advertising signifies a way for automatically optimising and purchasing digital campaigns, instead of direct purchasing. Programmatic campaigns were previously reserved for greater media agencies and budgets; however, the quick generation of self-service accessories provides tiny brands for enhancing technological access. The utilisation of machine learning and artificial intelligence results to purchase real-time advertising. RTB remain a procedure of selling and buying ads via real-time auctions.

The technology of programmatic advertising remains a simple procedure to buying and automate, and RTB turn out to be a way by which this can be achieved. Programmatic Direct remain a way for purchasing guaranteed quantity of impressions upon particular sites. Several ad exchanges are known to handle mobile inventory with ease, as mobile remain a significant aspect of digital landscape. In the words of Balocco and Li (2019), ad exchange requires data for knowing the qualified bidders for audiences and certain websites. It is primarily controlled by SSP’s and DSP’s. SSP and DSP significantly connects to various portions of programmatic ecosystem. DSP act as the advertiser’s tool that helps to organise programmatic buying of media. On the contrary, SSP is utilise d by publishers for connecting inventory toward ad exchanges. Programmatic is primarily traded on the basis of CPM. The platform for data handling is utilised to store, sort and collect information. DMP’s are primarily applied in association with a DSP on advertiser’s side. For targeting ads to particular visitors, DMP is required for segmenting and sorting the cookie data.

Utilisation of different targeting

There remain certain ways through which one can select to target their ads. It is helpful for achieving better outcomes and accuracy. Contextual targeting is focused toward showing advertisements depending on the website’s context. Keyword Trageting remain a specific contextual targeting which emphasises on serving advertisements depending on particular keywords. SME’s utilise geo-targeting for reaching consumers which are significant to the locality. For online services services or international brands, geo-targeting might be utilised for serving language-centric advertisements which is tailored to the target audiences. In the words of Noller and Magalon (2016), retargeting remain a largely effective means of re-engaing people with brand because they already generate an association with them. Through platforms of self-service, brands focus on finding ways. Through the aid of self-service platforms, brands emphasise on finding ways for taking the programmatic ad purchase in-house instead of going through middlemen. A PMP is utilised as a means of ad-exchanges, where the buying platform directly plugs into inventory of publisher. Prices vary according to format, device, placement and industry on page.    

Working of Programmatic advertising

Technologies of AI have algorithms which focus on analysing behaviour of visitor enabling real-time optimisation towards audience. In the words of Balocco and Li (2019), programmatic firms have the credibility to collect such audience data for targeting precisely. Programmatic buying indulges the utilisation of SSPs, DMPs and DSPs. DSP facilitate the method of purchasing ad inventory on open market. DMPs analyse and collect substantial cookie data for allowing marketer to build informed decisions. Programmatic advertising is necessarily designed to become efficient, precise and scalable. Moreover, programmatic advertising is known to take overall process toward latest level. This utilises algorithmic software which controlled the placement and sale of impressions through exchange platforms. Irrespective of several steps indulged, this overall method occurs at instant. Moreover, competing bids remain calculated through algorithms.   

Programmatic ads push boundaries for advertising on cross-device

Audience targeting remain primary to programmatic buying. This enables brands in creating campaigns which successfully attain objectives with confined waste. With developing models of attribution, users might be tracked throughout multiple channels under a cost-efficient fashion. CPA or CPL basis might generate more data insights and accurate reports because of such exceptional programmatic campaigns of media. In the words of Balocco and Li (2019), advertisers focus on finding ways in following and reaching on-the-go customer, this has enabled mobile apps like Spotify, Pandora, Waze and Snapchat for thriving in RTB environment. It is expected that mobile programmatic trends will continue toward evolving with trends of wearable technology trends that indulge smart glasses and smart watches looking into future. 

The need for programmatic ads

Programmatic ability lies on targeting the effective audience, which is unmatched through other advertising forms. Moreover, software used for purchasing programmatic ads utilises vast data amounts to remove the guess work indulged in ad campaigns. In the words of Tabrani et al. (2018), the decreased robust and waste targeting indulged with ads enable one to develop an efficient campaign with tiny budget. The automation serves advertisers in avoiding human error, since software might survey more data compared to human being. Programmatic is cheaper compared with traditional space and buying means. Programmatic advertising generates the capability to measures the capability of measuring the performance of campaigns, creatives and overall targeting. The total efficacy of programmatic advertising has developed dramatically with the capability of measuring campaign. Moreover, real-time measurement enables advertisers in tracking their campaigns through making optimisations and adjustments as required. In the words of Afridi et al. (2018), data measurement and real-time re porting remain a dream of every advertiser and marketer. The transparency performs a large role in efficacy which the programmatic advertising might bring. Digital ads remain the primitive channels by which marketers messages to customers. Programmatic advertising demonstrates a significant tool for communicating efficiently and making sales.

Programmatic advertising remain conducted through analysis and application of data under real-time. Moreover, marketers need access to information under real-time. Google Ads enables for mean daily campaigning budgets. In the words of Samuel et al. (2021), it depend on factors that influence the campaigning of ROI. The for ads run via programmatic advertising remain significantly flexible. Firms might decrease or up the budget if suitable. Programmatic now constitutes about 72% of every spend on digital advertising. Programmatic technology continually works for developing performance towards the campaigns of KPIs. There needs to forget about the complexion of RFQs, RFPs and RFIs. They must incur ample time on the total strategy via programmatic technology. As far as scalability is concerned, programmatic advertising enables one to reach greater audience throughout multiple touchpoints and websites in an efficient and timely fashion.

Hesitation of Marketers

Certain brands and marketers hesitated toward providing it a try. Brands remain unaware about different advertising type, however, there needs to identify the leading industry concerns when talk about programmatic campaign is done. Programmatic technology continuously collects smart data depended upon individual type which engages with brand.  

With programmatic ad, the performance for individual ad is evaluated in real-time. In the view of Martínez-Martínez et al. (2017), programmatic enables advertisers toward optimising and adjusting ads for testing results. Brands need to rely over third parties and agencies for handling their spending on ad. Brands might have total transparency over the fees. 

While coming to programmatic advertising, the future is here already. The incurrence on programmatic advertising is enhancing per year. For beginners, there need to listen the podcasts regarding programmatic, watching webinars. In the words of Busch (2016), there need to start by building the audience personas, KPIs and advertising strategy. It will serve in research concern to which ad networks and programmatic exchanges are suitable.

Steps for mastering programmatic advertising

Majority of spending in UK turns out to be programmatic. Certain common objectives can be attained through programmatic advertising. In the words of Malthouse et al. (2018), these indulge targeting and reaching latest audiences and enhancing awareness of brand. PA serve in retargeting and retaining current consumers and boosts advertising metrics and ROI. Selection of DSP remain significant, since this might serve in determining programmatic success. After selecting DSP, there require to highlight the campaign parameters. Setting essential KPIs and linking them to proper methodology is performed via primitive criteria of labelling. Insertion orders comprise overarching information regarding the campaign. It indulges broad information regarding ad and inventory. In the view of Gonzalvez-Cabañas and Mochón (2016), IOs remain documented proof for ad proposal and it needs to be thoroughly reviewed. They serve advertisers in handling their budgets and generate critical criteria. For working well, programmatic advertisements need valuable and quality data. Such data provides the insights you require for driving sales and targeting consumers.

Way of succeeding through Programmatic Advertising 

Marketers of SME’s always focus on establishing the advantages of PA. There needs to explore on the way of utilising it to the benefit in campaigns of digital marketing. When a marketer ventures into new domain of advertising, he/she is encountered with several new terms and ideas. It is significant to fix marketing targets right from the beginning. For doing such, there needs to utilise existing data for determining the kind of awareness about advertising. It is followed with effective strategy which will serve one in as sessing long-term and short-term objectives. PA primarily depends on machines and algorithms. There prove various platform kinds, and some of them offer half or full-managed services indulging War Room. Others generate technical platforms including Digilant, which enable one to run their programmatic purchasing activities. There requires allocation of skilled marketers in controlling, planning and optimising their borrow. For enjoying optimum success, there require to identify the perfect collaboration between intelligent intervention and automation. The challenge of PA is that it is become overdependent on algorithms which might result to ads appeared in wrong place. For ignoring such, there needs to ensure that demand-side backlist remain monitored and updated for suitable sites. Certain platforms enable the total categories exclusion from advertisement spendings, that might be primarily helpful. Primarily, PA are viewable among 44 percent and 55 percent. Customer privacy remain a significant problem for advertisers particularly on Connected TV and mobile. 

PA for SMEs

Internet has primarily democratised the advertising through offering correct scope for SMEs in order to develop with efficient marketing. The efficacy and measurability of ad across low costs remain a viable way to enhance sales. The various kinds of online advertising are open to small enterprise businesses, that indulges paid search, organic search or premium advertising display. SEO tend to more competitive, as CPCs under paid-search remain much expensive. Buying programmatic inventory in open market enables granular targeting. It does not need SMEs to borrow huge inventory volumes. SMEs should understand the various methods of transaction available under programmatic ads. They are required to assess tht suitability of their method concern to business models. Programmatic direct and private marketplaces might prove costly and it indulges complicated methods. Self-service platforms enable the advertisers of SME to pre-segment audience data throughout complete inventory. The rate of adoption for PA among smaller agencies and SMEs is much less with respect to media agencies and large brands. Self-serve DSPs requires limited experience, besides that, it offer features for making easy campaign management. Pricing is either not required to be restrictive. Education and training is vital and it might generate developments in performance of campaign. Any decent platform must offer such to their smaller clients. Moreover, SME’s focus on learning new processes which remain open toward latest growth opportunities. As their decision-making processes are flexible and faster, the logic remain a primitive attribute of marketing approach. Owing to large prices, marketing remain a primary barrier for SMEs across the world. SMEs might apply technology for enhancing their business and influencing the consumers. As SME, it is significant to utilise paid advertising for developing their business. PPC through outlets might enable in communicating with huge base of online audience. Search ads is significant since it becomes easier to assess significant information. Influencer marketing remain an efficient marketing approach for enhancing and reaching to the target audience, particularly for SMEs. Blogging and social media are primarily utilised toward accomplishing such. Brands find it easy to hire renowned personalities for the campaigns of marketing. Authenticity and transparency remain crucial attributes in the success of influencer marketing.In current competitive culture, maintaining the consumers remain much significant since the modern sale cycle starts with Leeds, however it terminates with Advocacy. Firms might lose about 44% of revenue per year with loss in existing consumers. Platforms of social media including Twitter, Instagram and Facebook primarily dominate between users. Various platforms might appeal to various audiences depending on the mission and nature of business. Currently, digital progresses technology has developed severe influence on efficiency. Current spending has indulged in more dependable and applicable. Digital automation remain significant tool that generates efficacy compared to manual method. Programmatic marketing remain the next effective way for advertising. Latest techniques have been created efficiently which targets wider spectator through web and online. Organisations and companies require a more faster and cost-efficient way toward advertising them. Certain events might trigger the aspects of programmatic advertising. It might be deployed with the utilisation of certain rules applied through software and algorithms. The skills of human are not required for deploying programmatic aspect for innovative technique. Human skills might not be essential for algorithm and software development along with programmatic campaigns as the rules required for starting automated method need beforehand pre-planning. SMEs have large priority for certain governments due to their significant contribution to economy and the people which they employ. Quick ICT development under digital era has influence over several life lines, that indulge transformations in customer behaviour and business environment. The utilisation of Communication and Information technology might make SME credible of engulfing potent markets. Utilisation of ICT significantly influences the agility of company. The companies utilise how companies make ICT credibility for directly influencing the competitive beefit. Such transformation develops competitiveness of small firms since it enables them in managing their consumers efficiently. The small firms in business might generate their agility because of the closeness to suppliers. It implie s that small business companies posists the philosophy and concepts recommended by theory of resources dependant. Small companies might effectively apply resource-intensive solutions of open-source that indulges search engine ads and SNS. Digital marketing results to better performance of export, as it serves in building long-lasting associations of customer. For instance, social media allows WOM communication and enhances sales. Moreover, social marketing remain significant and organisations primarily utilise such channels for handling and communicating customer associations. Social platform has substituted the method of consumer decision-making. For small business enterprises, there shows a primary trend which focuses toward digital development and intelligent development.

Blockchain Adtech

The ad tech of Blockchain is based upon decentralization principle. The products of Blockchain remove issues that include verifying publisher legitimacy, domain spoofing and restricting unauthorised reselling. In the words of Truong, Nkhoma and Pansuwong (2020), digital advertising remain a fragmented ecosystem that infuses agencies, brands, data firms and so. With introducing programmatic systems, fragmented has developed longer. Almost 15 vendors are needed primarily for exeuring the primitive ad campaign. Vendors have suitable methods for measuring and tracking campaign performance. Marketers often lack precise data on how poorly or well such campaigns like to perform. Blockchain demonstrates distributed ledger which records transactions through peer-to-peer computers network. This enables people in transferring contents without serving centralised intermediary. It utilises decentralized consensus which is examined through each network node. Moreover, blockchain develops reust without facilitating significant requisite for the third party. The technology of blockchain remain programmatic advertising’s future. Blockchain is utilised for bringing transparency into AdTech sector. It develops trust, generates latest opportunities for collaboration and innovation. In the view of Van-Tien Dao et al. (2014), Malware and Fraud records need to be maintained for creating a transparent and immutable risk profile while conducting campaigns of ad. Brand ratings, viewability scores, inventory bundles and total targeting precision might be documented publicly. It contributes to creating industry currency or gold standard about impression quality. CMS might get advantage from blockchain running since integrity of signal consent has been provided by user. There remain decentralised ecosystems which utilise smart contracts for connecting advertisers to customers. Purchasers might obtain offers for data sharing. The offers which they are receiving remain authentic. Programmers and advertisers might be capable of finding dadasets in a tailored and effective way. Programmatic advertising remain a technique for optimising and buying digital campaigns, instead of purchasing directly. PA has been designed for substituting AI-optimization and machine learning with human negotiations. The objective lies on enhancing transparency and efficiency for both publisher and the advertiser. There shows enormous exchanges of Ad that helps advertisers and publishers for connecting with. The greatest ones are marketplace of AOL, Xandr, OPenX, Ad exchange of Microsoft, DoubleClick and Smaato. In the view of Marotta, Abhishek and Acquits (2019), Ad exchange requires data for knowing the qualifying bidders for audiences and websites. IT is controlled through SSP’s and DSP’s. Adrech remain a significant aspect of the campaigning of digital advertising. Moreover, advertisers utilise Adtech to manage, buy and evaluate digital advertising. Advertising technology, commonly referred to as Adtech signifies an overarching term which demonstrates the software advertisers and tools for reaching audiences. Adtech have emerged for streamlining the process since selling and buying digital ads remain complicated. Primary adtech tools like demand-side platforms remain technologies which allow advertisers in selecting audiences and buying impressions. In the words of Lee and Cho (2020), adtech allows agencies and advertisers in effective managing of integrated campaigns. Brands can make suitable use of budget. This will enhance their ROI concern to digital advertising. Adtech landscape enables advertisers ro optimise and plan the campaigns for advertising. Adtech indulges variable technologies and tools, that includes supply-side platforms, demand-side platforms, ad networks and ad servers that help advertisers in serving significant ads to target audiences. SME’s emphasise on adtech for reaching customers via paid channels through advertising technology. Martech emphasises on reaching the audiences through owned or unpaid channels through first-party insights of brand.

Adtech uniqueness and benefits

Adtech is primarily emphasised on reaching customers by paid channels through sophisticated audience. In the words of Cole, DeNardin and Clow (2017), marketing technology (martech) emphasises on gaining audiences through owned or unpaid channels by first-party insights of brand. Adtech improves and simplifies digital campaigns of ad, besides that, technology tends to develop more sophistically. ML performs better at processing large information amounts, which further optimises the effectiveness of digital campaigning. Concerning efficient utilisation of ad spending, Adtech serves agencies and advertisers to deliver proper content at correct time. Through utilising Adtech, certain brands are capable of making better utilisation of budgets compared to their traditional counterparts. Ad placement or inventory remain less controlled in traditional method. Due to adtech, agencies and advertisers can measure and plan theircampaigns effectively and efficiently. In the words of Cooper et al. (2022), the tools of Adtech, including servers and like, enable for bird’s view of eye. Adtech performs away with advertisement of one-ad-fits-all which allow brands in sharing their stories. Solutions of AdTech serve in increasing the outcomes of ad campaigning, which they perform via data. There prove two common procedures utilised the AdTech sector. These include omnichannel marketing and pr ogrammatic advertising. The algorithms utilised toward advertising campaigns remain flexible. They remain customisable and changing which facilitate the requirements of individual campaign. SME’s remain focus that adtech might become successful when there is adequate significant data. For ensuring that, it is significant that data should have ad target count. In the words of Dwivedi, Kapoor and Chen (2015), AdTech firms leverage their powerful data collection for the ad placements. Monetization types and business models differ in every situation. The system remain beneficial for everybody indulged. Omnichannbel campaigns might utilise several types for advertising to user. ML sifts via huge data amounts for delivering personalised advertisements. When advertisers utilise machine learning or AI tool, this algorithm considers every data and information they contain on the provided topic. These can be utilised to develop the potent decision. Such decisions continue toward developing since this algorithms gathers more information. Effective decision-making remain growingly significant as the advertisers ensures that advertisements are significant to the audience. AI can serve advertisers in making effective choices. The place for market continues to shift, since it is significant for staying updated with demand. In the view of Hellín Ortuño (2019), AI and machine learning tools including conversational marketing might provide consumers with an individualised sale experience. Such kinds of tools might become significant since customers focus toward moving under digital world. Conversational tools might serve advertisers in developing personalised, unique engagements with consumers across various touchpoints in purchaser’s journey. AI might prove to be a successful tool since firms looks toward connecting with prospects and consumers. In the words of Jensen and Sund (2018), technological innovations including influencer marketing and artificial intelligence are transforming the interaction of brands with customers. SME’s get benefit from in-depth understanding and better analytics of their works of advertising. ML in advertising remain a method since technology analysis it, takes information and formulates conclusion which might develop a process or task. Insights generated from such technology might be applied toward personalisation, audience targeting and media buying.     

2.6 Literature gaps

The conducted literature is successful, though it has certain limitations. The literature has focused on the primitive aspects of programmatic advertising along with its influence on SME’s. The literature has focused more on the techniques of programmatic advertising. It also focuses on identifying the need for programmatic advertisement. However, it sheds little light on fundamental technological changes and transformation which an organization requires to adopt it. In addition, it does not focus much on the disadvantages of programmatic advertisement in small and medium enterprise businesses. The research does not focus much on statistical facts and figures along with mathematical calculations. Through capitalizing on programmatic value, publishers focus on achieving critical mass upon their inventory. Publishers might become capable of achieving stronger metrics that indulge CPM. Concerning greater insights and data, programmatic ad buying works through automated technology that develops the performance and efficiency of campaign. It is necessary to analyses and gather the data in an efficient fashion. Certain theories and models have been demarcated in the literature review, however, there is questioning regarding the utilization of these theories for different organizations.    

2.7 Summary

Thus, it is evident that programmatic buying has developed targeting capabilities, more insights and data, developed tracking capacity and greater transparency. Publishers remain excited regarding Programmatic buying, since it offers them with viable opportunities for promoting the ad space. One must draw insights for developing the campaign’s performance. The programmatic advertising system becomes popular, thus the inventory quality offered through publishers also increases. Advertisers across the globe focus on the value of programmatic buying. Advertisers can reach the target audience effectively through the aid of programmatic means. With the development of technology, there has been improvement in precision and accuracy of audience targeting. Through programmatic advertising, advertisers can track the place where advertisement is shown. With accurate and effective liabilities, the marketers focus on developing and expanding the market operation.

3.0 Chapter 3: Research Methodology

3.1 Introduction

This chapter has intense significance in the entire dissertation as it guides the researcher and develops a plan regarding the way most suitable data related to the issue can be gathered. It includes different sections, which provides an illustrative idea regarding the way required data can be gathered and utilized to get the accurate results. This research is based on the way Small and Medium Enterprises performs programmatic advertising and resolves the boundaries attached to this. Based on the applied research methods and techniques this section also tends to develop a time plan which will illustrate the entire time that has been invested for completing the research. However, while identifying the data collection and analysis method it will also ensure the way ethical consideration has been maintained in this research paper. The data collected in this chapter is going to be analyzed in the next chapter.

3.2 Research Onion

Figure 3.1: Research Onion


3.3 Research Philosophy

Research philosophy refers to the process through which the research is conducted or convinced in terms of the philosophical ideas. This it can be described as the belief that guides the researcher regarding the way adequate data can be collected regarding a particular phenomenon. Following that, it also helps in identifying the process of data analysis and use the result for further purposes. The philosophy can develop different assumptions depending on the nature and knowledge of the issue (Cazeaux, 2017). The application of a scientific approach allows the research on generating ideas into the existing research knowledge. There are mainly four research philosophies, which are mainly based on epistemology and doxology. Epistemology refers to the idea that is known to be true; in contrast, the doxology refers to the idea, which is believed to be true.

Figure 3.2: Research Philosophy

(Source: Self-created)

The four basic research philosophies include positivism, pragmatism, realism, and interpretivism. The positivist philosophy believes in stability of the reality that can be described as well as observed from the objective viewpoint. The positivism philosophy is most applicable in factual knowledge that can be gathered from different observations and measurements, which makes it trustworthy (Kennedy, 2017). Realism philosophy, on the other hand, is based on the idea of assumption of any scientific approach that helps in developing the knowledge. Pragmatism research philosophy is based on the “proposition” that can be used by the researcher through a philosophical and methodological approach that helps in resolving a particular research problem that is being investigated in the research.

This research has implemented pragmatism research philosophy (Mdpi, 2019). As this research is trying to identify the way small and medium enterprises, use programmatic advertising by eradicating its boundaries. In this respect, the study has to identify the way two small businesses (salons mentioned previously) are using this approach in the most appropriate way.

3.4 Research Approach

The research approach refers to the “Plan and procedure” listed by the researcher that consists of steps of data collection, its analysis and interpretation. It, therefore, guides the researcher the way the designing process of data collection and its analysis can be designed to ensure a successful completion of the research paper. It includes three types of approaches, the usability of which depending on the research requirements, such as “inductive approach, deductive approach and deductive approach”. The abductive among these three is a combination of the rest two-research approaches. Inductive research approach on the other hand, focuses on generating untested conclusions based on theories and its implementation.

Figure 3.3: Research Approach

(Source: Self-created)

This research has adopted a deductive research approach that helps in reflecting people’s association with different scientific investigation. This approach is mainly most suitable for testing hypotheses that have emerged from the works of other researchers on the same topic. This research is focusing on two salons such as Cally’s Swanse and Cally’s Cardiff and their Facebook campaigns, which have been used as a significant part of their Programmatic Advertising.  The data collected from these campaigns has been implemented in the research through a deductive approach. Hence, it is expected that the implementation of deductive approach will help in developing the idea regarding the way small business organizations can perform programmatic advertising to ensure a constant growth in their operating industry. 

The principal benefit of using deductive research approach is it acquires less time than others do for collecting and interpreting data. In addition, it can gain maximum benefit of the abundance of sources that reduces risk of misinterpreting the data (Pearse, 2019). Hence, it can be expected that by applying this approach this research is going to successfully identify the advantages of programmatic advertising and the way SMEs resolve their boundaries.

3.5 Research Design

Implementing a proper research design is important to ensure the appropriate utility of every research component (Libguides, 2006). However, it can be defined as the framework that includes research techniques and methods selected by the researcher. It allows the research to hone the research methods that are most suitable for the selected subject matter. The design phase of a research tends to determine the type and way of using the tools. Mainly four types of research design can be implemented while conducting academic research that includes, experimental design, descriptive design, explanatory design, and exploratory design (Rahi, 2017).

This research is based on the use of programmatic advertising of small and medium enterprises and its barriers. In doing so this research is following the descriptive research design where the data collected from different sources and Facebook campaigns has been analyzed in a descriptive manner. The descriptive research design refers to the type of design that aims in obtaining the information in a systematic manner that helps in describing the situation, phenomenon and population related to the research (Turner, Cardinal, and Burton, 2017). There are different types of descriptive design that can be used in the research paper that includes case studies, surveys and naturalistic observation. This research is based on case study and naturalistic observation that will focus on the way the salons can utilize the programmatic advertising in most suitable manner. Thus, it can be said that the descriptive research design has been selected in an appropriate manner to resolve the principal issue of the research.

3.6 Research Strategy

The research strategy refers to the “step-by-step” of action that directs the thoughts and efforts of the researcher by enabling the researcher to conduct the research in a systematic and scheduled manner (Rong, et al., 2020). In short, it can be said that it is a systematic process that helps research in resolving an inquiry problem. It must be recognized in the research methodology to ensure the appropriate alleging of methods. By implementing a proper strategy, the researcher can produce quality and detailed research results (Durazzo, and Lucarini, 2018). There are mainly three types of research strategy that includes qualitative, quantitative and mixed strategy. This research is focusing on implementing the qualitative research strategy. Following the Facebook campaign organized by two salons, this research is going to develop a case study, which will be analyzed through a qualitative and thematic way.

3.7 Research Method

Research method includes the used strategies, techniques, and processes in collecting the required data and evidence for its final analysis (Browne et al., 2020). The application of appropriate research methods helps in uncovering new information and creating better understanding of the selected topic.

There are different types of research methods that can be utilized in the research paper, such as qualitative method, quantitative method and mixed method. The qualitative method refers to the process that includes collection and analysis of the non-numerical data for understanding the options, concepts and experiences (Potter, 2018). Quantitative research method, on the other hand, refers to the process through which the researcher collects and analyses the numeric data through questionnaires or surveys. The mixed method refers to the process that includes both qualitative and quantitative research methods.

This research paper is going to follow the qualitative research method (Disman, Ali, and Barliana, 2017). Through this method, the research has focused on the case study and Facebook Campaigns to understand the way these two salons are utilizing the programmatic advertising for their business growth. The qualitative method in this study is going to help in understanding the emotional connection of the consumers towards the organization. Along with that, it also helps in developing a true assumption or result without any biases. Thus, it can be said that the implementation of the qualitative method in this research is appropriate and will benefit this research in gaining appropriate results.

3.8 Data Collection Method

This section plays the most significant part in the entire research paper. It defines the way a researcher should collect the required data for its further use. Thus, it can be said that this is the process of measuring and gathering data based on variables in a systematic way to answer the research questions and test hypotheses (Ori, 2016).  It is important to identify the appropriate way to collect data to ensure the appropriateness of the research. There are mainly three methods through which the required data can be collected that includes, primary data collection, secondary data collection, and mixed data collection. This research is following the secondary data collection method regarding the programmatic advertising applied by the SMEs.

Under the secondary data collection, method the research is focusing on the data that has been gathered through Facebook campaigns. Based on the campaign results the researcher has developed the case that represents the way these salons have utilized the programmatic advertising. However, to analyses their activities and the way the boundaries of implementing programmatic advertising can be resolved the researcher has collected information from different authentic sources. In this case, the required data has been collected from the works of other researchers depending on implementing programmatic advertising and its boundaries faced by the small and medium enterprises. Following that it has also tried to find out the best possible way through which these boundaries can be eradicated to ensure a successful implementation of this new way of digital marketing. Other than the authentic journals it has also intervened in the authentic websites to identify the wayu different small and medium organisations implement this process. Along with this, this research has also collected the related data from the campaigns to utilise them in further sections.

3.9 Data Analysis Method

The process of data analysis applies some systematic statistical or logical techniques that describe, and illustrate the collected data in an appropriate manner. According to “Shamoo and Rensik” there are different analytic processes that provide the way inductive inference can be drawn from the collected data, and a phenomenon can be distinguished from the available sources (Ori, 2016). There are different processes through which the data can be analysed that includes, primary data analysis, secondary data analysis and mixed data analysis method.

This research therefore, has selected the secondary data analysis method under which the collected data is going to be analysed in a thematic manner. The themes for this research have been structured on the basis of developed case study and theoretical data that has been collected regarding the way programmatic advertising influences the growth of small and medium enterprises. As this data has followed the qualitative data analysis method thus following that the theme has been developed for analysing the collected data in a sincere manner. The thematic analysis helps in developing an unbiased as well as appropriate research result through which the chances of getting an appropriate research result increase. Based on this, it can be said that the selection of a secondary qualitative method of data analysis has been properly selected. 

3.10 Research Ethics

The research study included secondary sources of information which does not require any specific ethical system. However, it has avoided plagiarism during the delivery of information from different secondary sources. The removal of the plagiarism has helped in the development of the information accurately. It has helped in the elimination of any further complexities in the information provided during the research study (Fiesler and Proferes, 2018). It is effective for the proper data collection process in the entire research study from different types of secondary sources such as websites, research articles and academic journals.

The research study selected proper articles as per the critical requirement and nature of information. The process helped in the proper delivery of accurate information which can help in the development of proper results for the reliability and validity of the research study (Hesse et al., 2019). It is crucial for the development of authentic information which is essential for the accurate findings and discussion related to the information of the particular study.

The study included authentic information from different authentic websites, research articles and academic journals. It provided a proper referencing system against each information provided from different secondary sources identified during the data collection procedure. The delivery of information and proper referencing system has helped in the proper acknowledgement of the sources provided against each source of information. It is effective for the elimination of any further complexities in the collection of information in the entire research study. 

As this research is based on the results of Facebook campaigns conducted by the salons thus it has been ensured that the results of the campaigns are not being manipulated through any influence. The results that have been collected through the analytics are also the appropriate result and have not been manipulated through any influence.

This research does not include any confidential data that can harm the privacy of any organization. It also has maintained the copyright act (Publishing, 2014). Based on that the information has been acknowledged properly whenever the information has been gathered from the works of other researchers.

Finally, it can be said that this research has followed the ethical considerations of the UK. According to that, it has focused on the ethical rules of the ethics committee to avoid any type of legal intervention in future (Wlv, 2020). Thus it can be said that this research has tried to cover all ethical regulations to ensure the authenticity of the research.

3.11 Research Limitations

Every researcher can face several limitations while conducting a research paper. The limitations can be referred to the issues that can appear while designing the research or any external sources. Study limitations are the constraints that can influence in the finding as well as analysis (Libguides, 2022). Nevertheless, it can be said that if the limitations cannot be identified and red card properly it can influence the overall result. While identifying the limitations or shortcomings it is better to describe the impacts of limitations rather than only listing the limitations. There are several research limitations that can influence the research which has been faced by this research as well. This includes: –

  • Implementation of data collection strategy: This research has faced issues in implementing a proper data collection method. As this research is based on the way programmatic advertising can be implemented in SMEs thus rather than adopting a secondary data collection method some of the small and medium enterprises can be selected particularly to interview to understand the process it would have been more impactful. However, this research has tried to focus on two particular salons to avoid this limitation (research-methodology, 2016).
  • Lack of previous data: Programmatic Advertising being a comparatively new dimension in this field this research has faced some issues in identifying adequate numbers of research journals regarding the selected issue. As a result this research has faced some issues in collecting adequate amounts of data. Due to this, this research has faced some issues in collecting proper amounts of data on implementing the programmatic advertising by small and medium enterprises (research-methodology, 2016).
  • Time: This research contains a wide range of sections that includes analysing the data of Facebook campaigns, developing a case study and interpreting the collected data related to this. All of these works need a broad time to be completed. The allocated time frame was very limited that created time constraints in this research. Though it was pretty significant, this research has tried to complete the works within the given time to avoid its influence in the analysis section.
  • Financial constraints: This is one of the significant issues that can appear while conducting a research paper. This research also faced a bit of a financial issue due to a limited financial allocation. There are some resources that required subscription, but due to limited financial allocation it was not always possible to subscribe to all those.

However, it has been tried to eradicate the limitations so that it influences a minimum in the data analysis or result of the research. 

3.12 Conclusion

This section in this research has tried to identify all required components that help in constructing and formulating a research in an appropriate manner. At the end of this chapter, it can be said that this research has adopted the pragmatic research paradigm and a deductive research approach for this research paper. Following that, it has adopted the secondary data collection method that has collected qualitative data depending on which the theme and case study has been developed. However, this section ensures that all ethical requirements have been followed while conducting the research to ensure its accuracy and authenticity. Finally, it can be said that data related to the programmatic advertising implemented by two salons has been collected and is going to be analysed in the following section to come to an accurate conclusion regarding the selected topic.

3.13 Research Timeline

Main activities Week 1 Week 2 3 Week 4-5 Week 6-7 Week 8-10 Week 11 Week 12
Select the topic              
Collect data              
Plan a layout              
Reviewing literature              
Developing plan for research              
Selecting techniques              
Gathering secondary data              
Data scrutiny              
Interpret the findings              
Prepare Conclusion              
Present draft work              
Final submission              

Table 3.1: Research Timeline

(Source: Self-created)

Chapter 4: Findings, Discussion and Analysis

4.1 Findings

4.1.1 Case Study

The saloon companies namely Cellys Swansea and Cellys Cardiff, are working in two different geographical locations of United Kingdom. Both the saloons have active presence in the digital platforms to ensure higher number of customers can be attracted and financial benefits can be gained. In such respect, the company Swansea has the estimated audience size of about 47,100,000, also the people who are connected with the company using Facebook and Instagram within United Kingdom and two other filters includes 55,400,000. Out of these numbers of populations, the total number of women are much higher than that of the men. That is 57.5 percent of women and 42.3 percent of men. The availability of the people is much higher from the London region that is about 10.1 percent and other higher number of people connected through social media includes Birmingham, Manchester, Glasgow, Leeds, Liverpool, Sheffield, Leicester, Bristol. This data is for Facebook, and also for the Instagram Swansea is the most popular city for Cellysc Swansea. The pages that are mostly visited by the people of United Kingdom incudes Wales Online in Media/news companies, LAD bible as media and news company which has 15.71 percent, 13.08 percent, Facebook 10.41 percent, BBC. News has 8.96 percent. There are number of other pages in the Interest that are also very much popular in the Internet. It is also strategically observed that there are about 1.1K likes comes in Facebook for pages in which total number of women is also higher, that is about 87.9 percent and men’s percentage is also about 12.1 percent. Furthermore, the number of likes generates in Instagram is also about 259, in which 87.2 percent of women are active and 12.8 percent men are active.

While analyzing the same, it has also observed that top towns and cities that are providing active participation for the growth of digital marketing includes Swansea with about 38.9 percent, Port Tennant with 4.9 percent, Morriston with 4.7 percent. There are number of other cities and towns available, which includes Neath, Llanell, Cardiff, Port Talbot, London, Pennllergear, and Stoke-on-trent. Each of these cities also contributes towards the development and enhancement of the companies through the proper set of involvement in social media. The above-mentioned data are collected from the Facebook only. It is also observed that in Instagram Swansea which has about 19.7 percent, Cardiff has about 3.9 percent, London has about 2.7 percent.

For the Cellys Cardiff Saloon, the estimated sizes of the audiences include 352,500 to that of 414,700. The range of people that includes, presence of the people in both the Facebook and Instagram. This data also includes the number of people based on their gender divisions. It has been observed that 56.1 percent of women are active in the Cellys Cardiff Saloon social media page and 43.9 percent of men are there for the Cellys Cardiff. It is also observed that there are number of cities, which are listed as highest number of people who follow CellysCardiff in its social media pages. It has also observed that the Wales Online has 21.21 percent, LAD bible has 15.33 percent, and has 11.52 percentage. There are number of other pages, which includes Welsh Rugby Union, Cardiff Council/ Cungor Caerdydd, South Wales Police Cardiff and Vale of Glamorgan, Spotted Cardiff is also actively working towards enhancing its scopes for market expansion 11.1 percent activeness within the customers.

It is also observed that the companies with their strategic development of digital marketing as well as the programmatic marketing are able to ensure positive business alignment and effectively maintaining the flow of operations. It is also observed that about 128.8k paid advertisements have reached within the market. This strategic growth of marketers are also becoming major issue of concern for contemporary competitive markets to gaining higher standards of business expansion and widens the customer engagements more rapidly. It is also observed that 303.7k paid impressions have also been observed for the businesses who are paying higher ranges of amounts to gain competitive advantages. For analyzing the advertisement trends of the companies, a specific set of periods has been selected from 21st December to that of 12th August. The mentioned data is within that selected timeframe only. This therefore observed that the companies who are providing paid promotions to the companies are gaining better and enhanced sets of market competitions to gain productive and effective customer engagements more appropriately.

From the above case, it has been observed companies are actively working towards changing their shares of market to maintain the customer flows and ensures positive financial growth more efficiently. It is also observed that the companies with the growth of technology and scopes in the digital platforms are actively ensuring positive association to maintain the flow of customers and widens the strategic approaches of customers to maintain their financial contributions more rapidly and appropriately. The provided data set also ensures positive sets of customer profile to maintain the integrated approaches of Data set indulge customer’s biometric data, customer’s personal identifier, geolocation, psychometric data, and internet-browsing history. These all are primary information, which is crucial for applications of AI in advertising method, this remains primarily viable for customer insights and brand messages. AI is developed through humans, which signifies that it might remain susceptible toward biasness. The connection among customer attitudes and frequency remains a significant aspect for past research. Repeated ad exposure tends to develop recognition feeling that makes ad much familiar to customers. The trade-off among invasiveness feelings and ad significance are presently not enough researched. 

Implementation of AIDA Model in SMEs

The AIDA model is essential for the development of proper advertising campaigns for different business organizations, which is essential for the future growth. The process is crucial for the leading of people related to the business activities and nature of the business.  The model is inclusive for four major stages such as attention, interest, desire and action (Pashootan Zadeh and Khalilian, 2018). The features for different stages of the model are completely different for those stages.

The attention phase of the programmatic advertising process requires the display of products or services of the brand for grabbing the attention of the potential consumer base in the market. The process is essential for the development of information related to the products and services for the targeted consumer groups. The management of the small and medium business organizations can grab the attention of the consumers with the help of different content such as captivation of advertisement, personalized messaging and intelligent targeting process (Moya et al., 2019). The procedure can help the management of different small and medium business organizations for the delivery of proper information regarding the brand products and services. 

The second stage of the model is the interest, which is focused on the enhancement of the interest level of the consumers for a certain product or service of different small and medium scale business organizations. The stage requires the development of interest level for the audience with the help of customized methods. It has been found that the SMEs have focused on the development of solutions faced by the consumers to grow the interest level of the potential consumer group in the market. The development of information regarding the problems and the solutions provided by the organizations creates significant interest levels for the consumers (Senanu and Anning-Dorson, 2022). The process provides opportunities for different SMEs to drag the consumer one-step forward in the model.

The third stage of the programmatic advertising process is desire which focuses on the conversion of the consumers in the sales practices. It is evident that the consumers become more interested after the collection of necessary details related to the products or services for a certain brand. It has been identified that the consumers tend to compare the similar kind of products from different competitor organizations. Therefore, it is essential for the small and medium business scale organizations to implement different unique features and deliver the proper messages related to the products and services. The process is essential for small and medium scale business organizations to develop proper programmatic advertising related to the existing products, services and brand stories.

The fourth stage of AIDA is action which has strategically worked towards the enhancement and development of the customer purchasing decision. It also widens the scope, widening the strategic alignment towards the application of purchasing decisions developed by the customers. These approaches are therefore also actively ensuring positive developmental scopes to ensure positive alignment and maintenance of customer preferences in the contemporary changing business scenarios. This stage of AIDA also widens the scope of knowledge, which is being understood as a “Call to Action” (Prathapan et al., 2018). This approach not only ensures positive alignment of the digital advertisement to that of technical buying processes as straightforward as possible. In the overall context of programmatic advertising, the fourth stage of AIDA also actively overlaps with other stages. For example, the interests and the attention of the customers are also very much effective to maintain the flow of customers more appropriately. Furthermore, both the interests and the attentions are closely interlinked with each other, which also provides an important aspect for defining the four stages of the AIDA formula for the given company to successfully work this action model and enable an accurate set of analysis more appropriately (Nilsson, 1998).

The AIDA model is also making active participations towards maintaining the flow of business formulas that works towards developing additional satisfaction to the customers while developing the stages for measuring customer satisfaction levels. The model is also being altered with other stages that include the goals including the subsequent purchasing and the referrals (Mumtaz, 2019). AIDA is therefore alo greatly expressed in the methods associated with the newsletters, customer ratings and the follow-up surveys over smartphones. It is also observed that while developing the customer’s attention, interests and desire are also already aroused, one has also addressed customers which once again is working towards convincing the customers more efficiently. This framework also works towards developing the advertising strategy for this, as it also compares with the offers that the companies are providing against their market competitors. 

Real Time Bidding System in SMEs

The concept of Real-Time Bidding (RTB), is a strategically important method that provides an approach of advertising the inventory for actually soldering and bringing on an effective per-impression basis, this is generally done based on the “Programmatic auctions which are also reminiscent of the financial markets”. This model of Bidding also works towards identifying the framework of customer buying behavior and its changing dynamics for ensuring positive aspects towards more appropriately. This also ensures a range of media and buying interactions, whether in online as well as in the traditional marketing approaches.

In both the cases, it has also been observed that there are advertisers and publishers who are providing better developmental opportunities to the companies by publishing the ideas that offer their media inventory as well as the advertisement locations on their different pages in social media or any other forms of advertising approaches that the companies need to adopt (Fortenberry and McGoldrick, 2020). Furthermore, the advertisers are also ensuring positive alignment with the developmental opportunities for finding the best fit for customers as well as the companies and buying such inventory at an agreed price. This approach is therefore strategically vital and significant for the companies.

The approach of Real time Bidding System is also a contemporarily growing concern within entrepreneurs that can create an effective team culture within RTBS approach. Today, with the growth of Programmatic marketing, companies in the UK are actively incorporating a range of strategies to develop the customer’s intentions to buy their products and services rather than that of the market competitors. This approach not only widens the scope for the companies to research on customers and seek services and products from the system, others also allow the sellers to post them in order to find the customers more appropriately. Furthermore it is also working towards facilitating international money transfer like the western unions, master-cards, PayPal and a number of other services are therefore incorporating a range of Programmatic advertising facilities more efficiently (Polk, 2018).

Such approaches are therefore operating properly since the information is dispersed through accessible and reliable institutions that also have attained the appropriate set of customer trusts and widens the scopes for customer engagements and making proper ranges of customer engagement facilities. In such respect, the involvement of RTBS is also demanding a range of strategic planning for strengthening the operations and legalizing the operations on the global operations. This ultimately results in the maintenance of proper customer engagement facilities and ensures positive alignment of the customers with the companies through building a strategic scope to legalize its operations on the global operations. SMEs in the UK are therefore actively ensuring positive alignment and development of their business reaches and ensuring the ranges of new business structures that need proper modifications for the pre-existing legal frameworks (Fortenberry and McGoldrick, 2020).

Furthermore, it is also observed that within the frameworks of RTBS, companies are also ensuring proper alignment of the customers and the employees who are involved with the facilitation of the culture of behaviours and the norms in which the companies are therefore known for. Each of these approaches are further analyzed using the proper involvement with Real-Time Bidding Companies who are engaging with selling all the required products and services that companies are requiring, including the machines, life-style related products, as well as other goods and services. It is observed that while developing the businesses, SMEs are incorporating the Programmatic advertising approaches based on RTBS procedures to provide and deliver all the products and services in line with those timelines and schedules. 

Selection of Demand Side Platform for Programmatic Advertising in SMEs

The demand side platform refers to a particular web-based server, which is crucial for different types of business organizations for the purchasing of the advertisement inventory from different publishers for the proper management of the exchange of advertisement and information accounts. It is essential for different types of SMEs for the management of the advertising procedure in different real time building networks through a single unified interface (Dostál and Lamar, 2022). It is identified that the programmatic advertising process is crucial for the SMEs for the targeting of the consumers as per the business nature and the engagement of the consumers for future growth and sustainability.

The adobe advertising cloud DSP is used by different SMEs due to the independent nature and integration facilities for screening and channel integration process. It is effective for the proper development of the planning, measurement and optimization of the programmatic advertising campaign. The process is essential for the development of real time and customized reports for the small and medium scale business organizations (Lee and Cho, 2019). The overall advertisement campaigns are essential for the analysis of the performance campaigns and effective optimization selection. The management of the small and medium scale organizations is effective for the engaging and personalized experience system. The global advertisement process is crucial for the maintenance of safety for different organizations, enhancement of the performance system and delivery of transparency for the business management procedures (Karlsson, 2021).

The Google advertisement procedure is essential for the development of a programmatic advertising system, which is implemented by different SMEs for the proper business development process. It is identified that the Google marketing platform is an effective tool for the development of proper advertising and analytics systems, which is crucial for the achievement of proper outcomes (Shareef et al., 2019). It is an essential and effective tool for the business management of small and medium scale organizations. It has been noticed that the process is crucial for the proper development, management and growth of the programmatic advertising campaigns. The process is essential for the integration of the advertisement procedures with technology and development of excellent solutions for the successful completion of holistic campaigns in different channels (Kong et al., 2018).

The Facebook advertising practice is effective for the development of organizational growth and engagement of the consumers for different small and medium scale organizations. The free availability and constant adoption of the social media platform has provided opportunities for the SMEs to be involved in the programmatic advertising process. The management of the SME business organizations is essential for the delivery of information related to the story, content, brand images, information regarding the activities and the data regarding the unique features of the products and services (WARC, 2019). It is effective for the small and medium scale business organizations to engage consumers and enhance the performance system.

It has been also found that the Facebook advertising process is essential for the maintenance of safety for different brands. It is identified the process is effective for the development of different types of safety principles and enhancement of the message communications with the audiences for better clarity regarding different features of the small and medium scale business organizations (Mejova, Weber and Fernandez-Luque, 2018).

Programmatic Advertising and Consumer Behaviour for SMEs

Today, it has been observed that the digital marketing and advertising platforms are facing active challenges and pressures with more disruptive channels, and shifting of industry towards rapid innovation has strategically helped the SMEs to adopt new ranges of innovative approaches. As it has been observed that everything-from the way companies and brands are targeting the customers more rapidly and appropriately, also records with the preferences and behaviours, persuade them and also intervene in the customer decision processes (Ullal and Hawaldar, 2018). These approaches are therefore also changing dramatically. In such respect, the involvement and emergence of Programmatic advertising within the broader concept of digital marketing is strategically expanding itself and maintaining the systematic development of customer decision making approach efficiently. It is also observed that SMEs are still facing a number of challenges in incorporating a range of Programmatic advertising approaches towards ensuring a positive and appropriate range of developmental facilities within the contemporary competitive business environment.

Programmatic advertisements were primarily created to meet the growing change within the market and empires that with the changes in the world economies that comprise about 90 percent of the global business approaches (Fenwick, McCahery, and Vermeulen, 2018). SMEs are in this respect, are keeping the emerging market flows more rapidly and appropriately, this sector in such respect also involving towards widening the ranges of Programmatic advertising approaches to meet the changing consumer behaviours and their tastes and also analysing why the SMES are in most of the cases working towards innovative and delivering ground breaking products and services to the markets more rapidly and appropriately. Moreover, the emerging approaches of automations, measurability and simplicity of programmatic advertising and its promises for democratic advertisements for SMEs are also able to ensure positive developmental aspects by solving the problems that SMEs are actively encountering (Zhao et al., 2021). Therefore, it can be understood that programmatic advertising is the most popular and changing route for media-buying and also becoming a major factor for solid reasons for the same.

Figure 4.1: Time Savings with programmatic advertising

(Source: digital.hbs, 2019)

Changing Dynamics of Programmatic Advertisements

Today, with the growth of marketing communication strategies particularly based on digital transformation, the programmatic marketing concept has gradually developed over time. It is also rapidly becoming a game-changer for the digital advertising platforms for gaining a higher number of customers and ensures positive growth frameworks more effectively. With the rise of digital advertisement procedures and its landscapes, programmatic advertisements are also becoming a new wave of automation and the involvement of technologies including Artificial Intelligence that are able to attract higher ranges of targeted customers and automation processes for buying the spaces for advertisements.

To understand the changing dynamics of digital advertisements, programmatic advertising needs to be understood carefully (Tolstoy et al., 2021). That refers to “specific model of buying ad space using data-driven software or automation tools that ensures the right ad copy is being seen by the right audience at the right time.” It is also observed that the advertisements generated using automatic processes can greatly be purchased and can also be included in any other forms of integrated marketing communication facilities. Furthermore, with the rapid involvement of the e-commerce businesses as well as the interest, companies are facing active challenges for paradigm shifts in the marketing as well as sales functions around the globe. Such rapid development of digital marketing dynamics changes in the last few decades have also observed that there is a rapid progress of customer decision making changes (Xu et al., 2021). 

Figure 4.2: Global Programmatic advertising platform market values

(Source: Oodlesmarketing, 2018)

The growth of programmatic marketing based on real-time bidding structures are the programmatic approaches which are best suited for the development and growth of online advertisement procedures (Bauer, van Dinther, and Kiefer, 2020). During the financial year of 2017, the growth of the global programmatic advertising industry was able to increase about tUS$80billion that represents about 45 percent of the entire global online marketing advertisement consumption. Furthermore, the sector is also rapidly growing and expanding itself with the incorporation of artificial Intelligence and machine learning procedures to maintain the flow of customer engagement and wider ranges of decision-making approaches. The companies like TechNavio, estimated that the growth of programmatic advertising might be observed with about a 21 percent CAGR within the end of 2022 (medium, 2017). 

Figure 4.3: Growth of Programmatic Advertising and its market size during 2017-2022


Programmatic advertisements also create the proper ranges of values for the development and the enhancement of marketers by properly allowing them to target advertisements for the maximum impacts (digital.hbs, 2019). The involvement of programmatic advertising in such respect strongly involves the creation of customer values by properly maximizing the utilization strategy. In such respect, the incorporation of the real time bidding mechanism programmatic advertisements that properly ensure proper inventory management that is also efficiently allocated to the higher bidder. 

This rapid development of programmatic advertising is also largely impacting the publishers who are creating a proper set of values and maximizing their utilization strategy more appropriately and efficiently. Using a proper range of real-time bidding mechanisms, the programmatic advertising also widens the scope for summering the ranges of efficient market share growth using higher ranges of bidders (Oodlesmarketing, 2018).

The companies for example must also be working towards advertising the de-icing salt that might be focusing towards developing their advertisements on users who are living in the areas of experiencing cold weather.  In such respect the involvement of new ranges of programmatic advertising also widens the scope for ensuring positive developmental scopes using artificial intelligence to automations for buying the advertisements for properly deciding the target customer. It is also observed that technology within the contemporary digital advertising and marketing that is currently undergoing a range of selecting business procedures and significant disruptions due to the rapid rise of data-driven automated technology. This changed the structure of arrival and convergence of advancements in data aggregation, automation and intelligence and are also impacting industries more rapidly and appropriately (Guha, Harrigan, and Soutar, 2018). 

Figure 4.4: The Life of a Programmatic RTB Ad Impression


Furthermore, the building of programmatic marketing is also greatly involved with the development and enhancement of business developmental opportunities more firmly and appropriately (Edwards et al., 2020). 

4.2 Analysis

Programmatic advertisements as it is observed that programmatic advertising also actively ensuring the range of buying and selling strategies and the advertisement inventories including mobile, desktops, search, display and video that strongly allow the demand sides that are advertisements, supply side that is publishers to that of the real-time transaction. Furthermore, the demand side platforms associated with the development and the enhancement of the Supply Side Platforms are also becoming a major issue of concern for the Supply Side Platforms. Thus, the involvement of programmatic advertising is also ensuring a proper range of developmental opportunities (Rus-Arias, Palos-Sanchez, and Reyes-Menendez, 2021).

Figure 4.5: 28-day click or 1-day view

(Source: Self-created)

The 28-day click that has been developed by the researcher to gather the information and maintains the flow of business approaches. In this framework the researcher has divided the entire segment within 4 major segments using 0-20, 21-50, 51-100, More than 100. Each of these segments are also effectively ensuring the ranges of programmatic advertisement approaches more rapidly and efficiently.

Figure 4.6: Reach

(Source: Self-Created)

Both the above-mentioned figures have strategically worked towards the identification and the analysis of the strategic approaches that widens the importance of programmatic advertisements for the SMEs. The selected Saloon companies of UK can strategically incorporate the ranges of developmental opportunities and ensures positive growth procedures for the SMEs. This is because, with the growth of smartphones and the users of smartphones, advertisement companies are actively ensuring a diversified range of customer decision making approaches through which customers can be attracted and to develop their interests for making decision making approach.

4.3. Discussion

There needs to utilise data for customising messages and images depending on actual ad analytics. Dynamic creative proves to be progressing in sophistication and adoption. Dynamic creative remain a porogrammative approach which might utilise the location of viewer. It signifies the data feeds utilisation under display ad which is tailored toward presenting the significant or updated information. For dynamic creative to remain successful, having effective creative technology remain a must. For developing the needed ad variations, an association of DSP, CMP ad DMP is widely recommended. DCO or dynamic creative optimising remain the next genre dynamic creative. It is the perfect association of creative technologies accessible to the marketers who displays advertising. DCo enables marketers in customising and optimising the creative building for a specific segment of audience. Through utilizing CMP, such variations of ad are optimised and designed under real-time. Elemenst indulging images and text adapt toward user data. It might work good however, it results to product feeds and boring ads with personalised text.  Adopters of PA remain concerned with total cost benefit with respect to traditional advertising means. Part of cost analysis requires to consider the metrics of PA. There needs to utilise the insights of programmatic audience through marketing channels. There needs emphasize over incorporating every efforts since one overarching plan serves in developing ROI through every consumer touchpoints. Programmatic advertising remain automated transaction for selling and buying online advertise. PA primarily covers variable formats of advertising. Serving and buying programmatic video through channels remain a primitive approach for marketers. There remain two unique kinds of programmatic video which are outstream and instream. AI has also significant utilizations in the programmatic advertising. There have been a large influence in optimization and personalization of creative. PA is continuously evolving on latest strategies and technologies. Programmatic creative remain the outcome of growth and adoption of various technologies of programmatic advertising. Creative technologies remain paired with buying of program which allows markers in reaching right consumer. The data analysis from such processes allow larger efficacy by personalised messaging. It enable marketing teams for developing performance via customization of ad. Programmatic customization remain a practice for certain marketing teams. Large data amount signifies that creative advertising can become much significant to consumers. Ads are adapting to attributes like device, location, time, weather and demographics. Platforms of creative management allow marketing teams toward publishing and building advertising through formats. There needs to utilise data for customizing messages and images depending on actual ad analytics. Dynamic creative proves to be progressing in sophistication and adoption. Dynamic creative remain a porogrammative approach which might utilise the location of viewer. It signifies the data feeds utilisation under display ad which is tailored toward presenting the significant or updated information. For dynamic creative to remain successful, having effective creative technology remain a must. For developing the needed ad variations, an association of DSP, CMP ad DMP is widely recommended. DCO or dynamic creative optimising remain the next genre dynamic creative. It is the perfect association of creative technologies accessible to the marketers who displays advertising. DCo enables marketers in customising and optimizing the creative building for a specific segment of audience. Through utilizing CMP, such variations of ad are optimized and designed under real-time. Elemenst indulging images and text adapt toward user data. It might work good however, it results to product feeds and boring ads with personalised text.

With development in technology, marketers remain exposed toward greater scopes in engaging and finding their primitive consumers. Primarily, programmatic marketers might require to stand on the toes for remaining updated with current innovations and trends. In current digital era, programmatic marketing strives to develop. Certain insight members focus on utislising Learning paths training for catching-upcurrent insights of every digital things. PM opens up certain opportunities that is not perfect when placement of ad is not done manually. This enables advertisers in procuring digital media irrespective of prenegotiating price. Through data of consumer, PA can address aspect which resonates with individual. As mentioned ealier, RTB is much significant since under RTB, there is ,no requirement of ad purchasers toward direct working with ad networks or publishers. Moreover, RTB serves brands in reaching the target segments, allowing advertisers in displaying and bidding ads. Because of real-time algorithm of bidding, it remain possible to demarcate factors of unique impression.

As a result of adaptation to social and technological transformations, the environment of advertising is evolving continuously. Previous research demarcated that large frequency remain a leading problem under programmatic advertising. In the words of Bakpayev et al. (2022), consumer databases are getting multidimensional, richer and deep layered. Moreover, integration of technology and data management in trading method allow increased targeting and higher efficacy. Hence, the capability of collecting valuable data might support ads customisation towards customers. PA has the capability to handle and process consumer data, as it remain an asset of economy. They demand that customer data have threefold function for targeting, delivering and identifying ads. The approaches and models underlying programmatic purchase is concerned to traditional buying. In the words of Brar, Pipko and Saltzman (2017), traditional media distinguishes from programmatic sales through delivery and sales method. In PA, integration of technology and data management in trading method qualify a larger efficacy and developed targeting. PA indulges media buying processes like PMP, programmatic guaranteed (PG) and Automation guranteed/Programmatic direct. RTB is utilised toward delivering impressions of ad to target audiences efficiently via auctiobns of real-time. The utilisation of social and digital media prove to be a large aspect of the daily lives of people. PA has insurged intelligence through providing data along with a larger emphasis on individual customer. Besides the advancement in regular ads and digital marketing, newspaper, radio, television or billboards remain placed upon Internet. In the words of Camilleri (2020), the media-buying and advertising ecosystem has been hugely influenced by digital transformation. Moreover, the advertising culture is evolving continuously because of adapting to social and technological transformations. Due to emergence of Internet and digital improvements, there has been tremendous rise in the number of publishers (websites publishing ads). Automation remain the promising answer to three dominant issues which are scale, efficiency and price. PA tend to be a significant answer toward such challenges. PA demonstrates the quick online buying through the technologies of computing. Over times, it is turning into a generous process of selling and buying ads across search, display, video, native, in-app and social advertising. Display advertising is a kind of online advertising, in banner ads which deliver messages of marketing to the site visitors. In the view of Chen (2020), programmatic purchasing is depended on software which is efficient in ways which humans cannot. Such productive system of automation allows large speed making of decision. Programmatic buying might analyse buying scopes and lakhs of ads undera second. There has been clear demonstration of programmatic advertising methods in the literature review part.  Ad Exchange might be described as market of exchange between sellers and buyers for individual impression of ad. Yahoo Ad and Google Click are instances of advertisement exchanges. In targeting, there remain huge development of social platforms because of significant targeting mechanisms. From the case study, it is evident that the two saloon firms of UK, Cellys Cardiff and Cellys have strong presence in digital platform for ensuring the attraction of larger target consumers. The estimated audience size of Swansea is about 47,100,000. It is noticed that leading cities and towns are actively providing participating for digital marketing’s growth. There are various other cities and cities accessible, that indulges Llanell, Neath, Port Talbot, cardiff and London. Each individual city contributes to the enhancement and development of firms with perfect involvement set in social platform. For cellys Cardiff, the effective audience size indulges 414,700. PSP increases the collected information through utilising logic asa per Detection Engine, Bidding engine. Internet penetration progresses space throughout both mobile devices and computers. Unsold inventory proves to be an actual risk, and it is to be identified carefully. In the words of Ciesielczyk (2017), DSP enable the concerned inventory to handle data exchange and ad exchange via one interface. Each of the data originates from DSP by which ads of video were primarily borrowed. During the process of PA, software is utilised for automating the placement, optimization and buying of inventory through the system of bidding. Different publishers contain variable advertising space amounts which remain accessible for selling advertisers. Video campaigns primarily comprise two KPIs, which are completion rate and viewability rate. Viewability rate signifies the ads percentage noticed through a user. Viewability rates remain evaluated by tracking code which is not accessible on advertisements of mobile. The rates of completion remain easier for tracking through various devices. In the words of Dahl and Ericsson (2019), today’s digital technology has developed severe effect with developed information and generating connection with clients and customers. The primary advantage lies on the access which one obtain to the options of programmatic targeting. For placing advertise, it utilises online display target and traffic data for driving impressions at effective scale. The global expenditure on programmatic advertising is about $129 bn. Businesses moreover rely on web-centric software for constructing target audiences and programmatic campaigns based on certain data like browsing behaviour, demographics, purchase behaviour, household income and the location. The programmatic advertising tend to more famous, which will continue to gain success in the near future. In the view of Deng et al. (2019), irrespective of every advantages, certain digital marketers remain unconfident in their capability to evaluate ROI. Programmatic advertising offers several ways for measuring ROI and campaign performance. Because of mobile expansion, one might utilise GPS that helps in determining the number of people exposing to ads. It might prove possible toward delivering contextual ads, since consumers are in shopping process. Hence, it enhances the chance of affecting their purchase intention. In addition, programmatic can be effectively utilised to evaluate if the decision of customers purchase is caused by ad effect. One have the capability for mobile, programmatic display along with video campaigns. In the sense, programmatic advertising has transformed the traditional marketing approaches. In the words of Kiran and Arumugam (2020), with the growth of data-centric marketing, advertisers need to purchase audience profiles, in place of banner ads. It’s effective for driving consumers and increasing brand awareness via the purchase funnel. The current technologies focuses on shifting on how businesses analyse, distribute and capture data from personalised online activity. It throws light on block chain utilisation, since such distributed technology generates verified, secure transactions between marketplace stakeholders. In the words of Karlsson (2020), service providers tend to utilise data-centric technologies that indulge re-targeting individuals and advertising tools. Organisations and individuals remain aware about data protection problems, since they block marketers. In big data era, firms are turning toward social media and social media since latest information sources track prolific range of situations and processes. The landscape of business has transformed at a quick pace and this has happened with acceptance of social advances and media in mobile. Market budgets of SME’s remain trapped under insufficient funding gap. Small firms require a flexible strategy toward advertising. Platforms of programmatic does not need forms to hold strict size budget. They emphasise on automating ad serving that assist SME advertisers in magnifying and impacting the campaign results. In the words of Dahl and Ericsson (2019), programmatic advertising remain the effective digital advertising in UK and the whole world. Advertisers of SMEs primarily have certain knowledge about the target audience which they wish to reach. Advertisers might purchase ad directly from network of ad. For small advertisers, the method primarily indulges setting of business on advertising budget. Larger advertisers might select to utilise intermediaries for buying inventory over ad exchange. Over times, the rules of auction have transformed over time. Programmatic buying of ad has served in decreasing the total cost for advertisement. RFPs and RFIs are significant for the initial research. However, it is impossible toward accounting every variables which influence performance of real life. The worth of new technology need to be assessed, however, it is rarely a scientific method. In the words of Deng et al. (2019), there needs to understand why certain SSPs contain larger CPM compared to other SSPs. They have delivered effective ROI, better CTR, larger volume or greater view ability. Certain SSPs focus on implementing price auctions that provide publisher with higher revenue CPM. Humans are handling data analytics for personalising messages in latest ways. Effective ad buys tend to be efficient and it saves money. Television advertising remain the primitive centerpiece of marketing mix. Each stage in television history has profound influence on advertising. The latest age of computation advertising needs all the three DAD elements, which are advertising inventory, data and delivery which requires optimisation. Moreover, delivery technology needs to be identified to local device or individual household. In the words of Kiran and Arumugam (2020), advertising inventory should be accessible readily. The available data needs to provide comprehensive view of individual. There should be coordination between the individual variables for programmatic approach. As various firms control these as pects, coordination might need partnerships, acquisitions or agreements. With the development, programmatic constitutes about 72 percent of every digital advertising expense. Brands need to think regarding potential consumers or customers data. The utilisation of acronyms including SSP and DSP, along with API and DMP (platform for data management). RTB remain a cost-effective process through which media can be bought with greater audience. PA employs the software utilisation for determining optimal processes through which marketers utilise the real estate digital advertising.

In the words of Kiran and Arumugam (2020), machines purchase ad space since they the behaviour of buyer. On having more data, the campaigns can be made much individualised. Moreover, PA enables one in reaching broader audience with personalised messages. The marketers require to overcome the challenges posed by programmatic advertising for enhancing their business. Certain firms fear about integrating programmatic advertising which can destruct existing belief among two entities. The programmatic advertisement enable firms to sell advertisements across a larger volume. In the words of Kiran and Arumugam (2020), marketers and advertisers focus on automating individual stages for making successful ad campaign. Such steps can indulge campaign optimisation, ad placement, performance tracking, media buying and campaign creative design. Programmatic platforms enable publishers in handling the ad inventory. Sometimes, it is confusing to evaluate the difference among display advertising and programmatic advertising. The companies selected in our case study can expand their business through implementing SmartyAds. In the words of Kiran and Arumugam (2020), SmartyAds contain SSP, ad exchange, DSP, DMP and SSP under one place. Video, display, narive advertising and in-app remain supported for desktop and mobile settings. Smartyads researches on artificial intelligence and Blockchain technology for transforming the processes through which ads remain sold and bought. For selecting platform of advertisement, there needs to consider certain aspects like customer support, cost, transparency, technology, advertising techniques and considering agency.

4.4 Summary

It is also observed that technological development in data and artificial intelligence are also allowing the advertisers and companies for automated serving of the right target audiences with the proper set of messages being delivered to the customers. Such perspectives of data tracking also allow an unprecedented campaign optimisation, retargeting using the pixels and cookies within the websites to track and to analyze the customer. Such approaches adopted by the programmatic advertisements and tracking that allows unprecedented campaigns that are also optimisation, retargeting using pixels to track the customers to develop their customer profiles. “Programming is the new digital form of globalization. The borders, walls and obstacles once capable of preventing holistic customer tracking online and offline are now forever demolished.”. It is also focusing towards understanding the perspectives of Programmatic that is changing their entire business approaches (White and Samuel, 2019). 

Chapter 5: Conclusion

5.1. Introduction

In the contemporary competitive business environment, attracting a higher number of customers to gain better business opportunities. While doing so, the companies must also ensure positive scopes of programmatic advertising procedures that are associated with the new aged advertisement procedures. This paper has also elaborately discussed the importance and the significance of marketing strategies and the frameworks that the UK based SMEs need to incorporate within its integrated marketing campaigns through which companies are allowed towards ensuring positive aspects of business development opportunities. This chapter is therefore actively analysing the scopes of business development through the use of programmatic advertising procedures. 

5.2. Linking with Objectives

It is identified that the introduction section of the research paper discussed the basic roles and responsibilities of the programmatic advertising procedure. The programmatic advertising process has provided opportunities for the organizations to sell advertisements in a large volume. The large volume of the development remains associated with the designing and proper development of marketing budgets. The budget and campaigns are required to be tweaked in the automatic programmatic purchasing system. It has been also identified that the rate of the adoption of the advertising process for different small and medium scale business organizations is very less in comparison to the media agencies and large brands. The process is essential for the development of knowledge related to the performance of different types of programmatic advertising campaigns. The process is crucial for the inclusion of information related to different small and medium scale business organizations which is essential for the development of business strategies for Cellys Cardiff and Cellys Swansea. It is linked with the first and second objective of the research study. 

The literature review section developed information regarding different types of programmatic advertising systems which is essential for the critical development of knowledge related to different programmatic advertising systems. The process included critical discussion related to different types of programmatic advertising systems such as online advertising, email advertising, text messaging, social media advertising and others. The process further provided information regarding the requirement for the implementation of different types of programmatic advertising system in different types of programmatic advertising system. The section also developed knowledge regarding the enhancement of marketing segmentation, consumer trust level, personalized messaging, automatic advertising system and the utilization of different types of programmatic advertising system among different consumer segments. The detailed information related to the application of programmatic advertising system, cross device advertising system, requirement for programmatic advertising process and detailed process for the marketing which is essential for the small and medium scale business organizations for the proper implementation of the programmatic advertising system. It is linked with the second and third objective of the research study.

It has been identified from the case study that the saloon companies, namely Cellys Swansea and Cellys Cardiff, are working in two different geographical locations of the United Kingdom. Both the saloons have active presence in the digital platforms to ensure higher number of customers can be attracted and financial benefits can be gained. It is also observed that the companies with their strategic development of digital marketing as well as the programmatic marketing are able to ensure positive business alignment and effectively maintain the flow of operations. From the above case, it has been observed companies are actively working towards changing their shares of market to maintain the customer flows and ensure positive financial growth more efficiently. It is also observed that the companies with the growth of technology and scopes in the digital platforms are actively ensuring positive association to maintain the flow of customers and widens the strategic approaches of customers to maintain their financial contributions more rapidly and appropriately. The information regarding the case study has developed proper knowledge related to the development of programmatic advertising process in two saloons named Cellys Swansea and Cellys Cardiff which is essential for the fulfillment of the research objectives.

5.3. Recommendations

Recommendation 1: The organizations are required to enhance the efficiency of the programmatic advertising process by 15% in 3 years

Specific Measurable Achievable Realistic Time Bound
The recommendation process is specific as it provides particular measurement for the enhancement of the efficiency of the  The process can be measured with the enhancement of the efficiency level of the programmatic advertising system. The outcome of the process can be achieved with the help of consumer trust, engagement of the audience, improvement of the performance system and optimization of the productivity standards of those two saloons. The process can be achieved with the help of the advancement of the processes in the programmatic advertising process. The process can be achieved with the development of proper formulation of different strategies  for the enhancement of the efficiency of the programmatic advertising process. The process is realistic as the salons have proper experience and resource capabilities for the improvement of the programmatic advertising system. The process is realistic as it can help in the development of the programmatic advertising process within 3 years. The process time bound as the organizations can improve the efficiency of the programmatic advertising process within 3 years. 

Table 5.1: Recommendation 1

(Source: Self-Created)

Recommendation 2: The companies must also need to provide better quality products and the services to the customers in different regions

Specific Measurable Achievable Realistic Time Bound
The companies selected must develop a range of quality checking procedures to maintain the customer satisfaction and promote the growth of financial revenues of the companies.  The process can be measured with the help of proper strategies and development of knowledge related to the behavior of the consumers in different regions in the operating market of those two salons. The process can be achieved with the help of proper strategies in programmatic advertising procedure.  The process can help in the development of proper programmatic advertising processes for the engagement of consumers in different regions. It is also very much reliable for the companies to maintain the overall growth of the companies in the contemporary competitive business environment. Companies using enhanced quality goods and services can also be able to maintain their share of market more efficiently. 6-9 months

Table 5.2: Recommendation 2

(Source: Self-Created)

5.4. Conclusion

5.5. Future research scopes

The current research has strategically discussed the programmatic advertisements towards maintaining the flow of contemporary business competitiveness. It also discussed the significance of contemporary digital advertisements towards meeting the changing demands more efficiently. The current paper has provided the scopes for the future researchers to discuss about the significance of diversified ranges of digital media available in the contemporary digital platforms and their significance on developing the programmatic advertising strategies. It is also developing the scopes for future researchers to discuss and analyze the ranges of developmental strategies of SMEs to ensure developed ranges of programmatic advertising strategies to widen the scopes of future customers. 

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Appendix 1: Global Programmatic Advertisement Spending

 (Source: image2.jpg (1072×577) (

Appendix 2: The Dominance of Google and Facebook